Chromatography in Ukraine: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.
Contributor:

The development of chromatographic science in Ukraine is due to the widespread use of chromatography to solve practical problems. The centers of chromatographic research in Ukraine are in large cities: Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, Odessa, and others. Along with the development of chromatographic research methods, analysis methods for control of food and agricultural raw materials, medicinal products, petroleum products, and determination of the environmental pollution state are created. Chromatography is used in medicine, pharmacology, biology, and other sciences.

  • history of chromatography
  • chromatographic method development
  • methods of analysis

1. History

Chromatographic research in Ukraine is developing quite rapidly due to the wide range of its practical use. The history of chromatography in Ukraine is closely related to Mykhailo Tsvet, whose father was Ukrainian (born in Chernihiv), and his mother Italian [1]. Tsvet performed his chromatographic research at the University of Warsaw from 1902 to 1903. He first reported the method of chromatography in March 1903 at a meeting of the botanical branch of the Warsaw Society of Naturalists in a report on “On a new category of adsorption phenomena and their application to biochemical analysis”.
In 1938, Kharkov Izmailov N.A. and Schreiber M.S., for the first time, published work on circular thin layer chromatography and subsequently developed other variants of the method of thin-layer chromatography [2][3].

2. Research Centers

Research centers in the field of chromatography in Ukraine are located in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Lviv, Odessa, Dnipro, and other cities. At the Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kyiv, research and development of the method of ion chromatography are carried out. This method effectively determines ionic compounds and, in many cases, is normative for ecological research of natural waters and water quality control (particularly in energy) [4][5][6][7][8][9][10].
The works were carried out under the guidance of professors L. Loginova and A. Kulikov at the V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, the “Ukrainian Scientific Pharmacopoeial Center for Drug Quality” which is dedicated to studying high-performance liquid micellar chromatography [11]. L. Loginova and A. Kulikov proposed models for determining the retention time of compounds in micellar liquid chromatography, which allow optimization of the composition of the micellar mobile phase for better separation of anions [12][13][14]. The influence of reversed-phase sorbents on the separation efficiency [15][16][17] and organic phase modifiers—organic alcohols, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, organic acids—were studied for separation efficiency [18]. Methods of quality control for medicines and substances have also been developed. Studies using micellar thin layer chromatography to analyze biologically active compounds, in particular, coumarin, licurazil, and glycyrrhizinic acid in plant medicinal raw materials, were carried out [19][20].
Methods of pharmaceutical analysis of drugs, medicinal raw materials, and food products are being developed in the O.B. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Odessa. The studies use high-performance liquid and high-performance thin-layer chromatography [21][22].
Investigations of the content of biologically active substances and impurities in drugs and medicinal plant raw materials are carried out in the laboratories of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of Zaporizhia State Medical University [23]. This laboratory develops methods for determining compounds that are markers of various diseases [24]. Studies of drug metabolism in living organisms are also conducted [25].
Chromatographic studies at the Department of Toxicological and Analytical Chemistry of Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University concerning the determination of toxins and residual amounts of drug substances and their metabolites in biological samples were performed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography (GC). In particular, Ph.D. Docent Bidnichenko Yuriy Ivanovych deals with the problem of toxins analysis from poisonous fungi [26]. The determination of fungal toxins was performed by TLC [27], disk electrophoresis [28], capillary electrophoresis [29], gel chromatography [30], and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [31].
Attention in scientific research of the Department of Analytical Chemistry of Kyiv National University is paid to studying sample preparation methods by solid-phase extraction. These studies were developed under the guidance of Prof. V.M. Zaitsev. The method of solid-phase extraction concentration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, phenol, 1-naphthol, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol using silicon oxide from water and biological fluids is described in [32][33][34]. The topic of associate professor M.G. Zui was related to the determination of oxygen-containing organic compounds: phthalates, parabens, benzophenols, and oxygen-containing compounds [35][36].
Chromatographic studies of the purification of polyacrylamide gels for medical purposes, which were synthesized at the F.D, Ovcharenko Institute of Biocolloid Chemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, were conducted at the Institute of Environmental Geochemistry [37].
Gas and liquid chromatography were used at Lviv Polytechnic National University to study the kinetics of reactions at the departments of basic organic and petrochemical synthesis technology (now the Department of Organic Products), chemical technology of oil and gas refining, at the Department of Analytical Chemistry (analytical and general chemistry, organic chemistry) [38][39].
The scientific work of the zeolite-chromatographic group headed by Professor Onufriy Banach of the Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University was devoted to the study of using zeolites in gas chromatography [1][40]. For stationary zeolite phases for gas chromatography, the “low substitution effect” was found, which consisted of the fact that in zeolites, when sodium cations were replaced by other alkali metals, the parameters of gas retention in gas chromatography conditions changed sharply. In particular, for ethane, methane, and oxygen with a low degree of substitution (9.8%) of Na + cations on K + in zeolites, the retention time of these gases increased rapidly, which was also observed in cases of substitution of 6% Na + on Rb + and 5% Na + on Cs + [40][41]. The phenomenon of inversion of the chromatographic retention was also observed, which consisted in changing the sequence of the components of the mixtures from straight to inverted. For the phenomenon of chromatographic inversion, two types were identified: (1) inversion caused by exposure to one of the components in the studied gas sample; (2) inversion depending on the degree of substitution of cations in the zeolite [40][42]. Studies of the chromatographic properties of zeolites revealed the specific selectivity of silver-containing zeolites of type Y to carbon monoxide [40]. The study of the properties of modified zeolites made it possible to create effective methods for analyzing the content of oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur and hydrocarbon gases C1–C4 in atmospheric air. Zeolite stationary phases were used for gas adsorption (solid-phase) chromatography and extraction, concentration, and desorption for the quantitative chromatographic determination of these air pollutants [43][44][45][46][47][48][49].

3. Application

Considerable attention in chromatographic research in Ukraine is paid to the state of environmental pollution by toxic substances. To this end, methods are being developed for environmental monitoring and detecting toxic substances, such as pesticides. This activity is the subject of attention of state bodies and is defined by law.
Chromatography plays a notable role in the chemical and analytical support of toxicology and hygiene of pesticides, occupational health, and the environment. In Ukraine and the former Soviet Union, it was introduced in the early 1960s in the physicochemical laboratory of Kyiv Research Institute of Hygiene Labor and Occupational Diseases. It was headed in 1960–1964 by Marta Arkhipovna Klysenko, who, with the participation of specialists from the same laboratory, had previously developed the country’s first methods for determining pesticides in the air of the working area (arsenic-containing insecticides—1954; phosphorus and organochlorine insecticides—1955–1956); in soil, food and biological environments (1962) [50]. The implementation of such developments was of great importance for the hygienic regulation of pesticides, addressing their use in agriculture, safety for the health of workers and the general population, and the environment. This laid the foundations of a new scientific field—analytical chemistry, namely “analytical chemistry of pesticides”.
In the All-Union Research Institute of Hygiene and Toxicology of Pesticides, Polymers, and Plastics of the Ministry of Health of the USSR 1965–1989, under the guidance of Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor M.A. Klysenko, special attention was paid to theoretical issues (study of the relationship between chromatographic behavior of pesticides of different chemical nature and their molecular structure, behavior in the environment and the body), application of chromatographic methods in basic research in toxicology, and biological exposure monitoring [51][52][53][54][55].
The organization and coordination of development, testing, and implementation of methods for chromatographic determination of pesticides in all union republics was carried out by the Group of Experts on Review and Recommendation of Methods for Determination of Pesticides and Biologicals in Food, Feed, and Environment at the State Chemical Commission for almost 30 years. During this time, the Ministry of Health of the USSR developed and approved more than 6000 guidelines for the determination of micro quantities of pesticides, which were issued as official guidelines in more than 20 collections of guidelines and 8 reference publications on the determination of pesticides’ micro quantities in food, feed, and environment. Today, these recommendations are relevant in the field of pesticide safety control not only in Ukraine [56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63].

This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/separations9050114

References

  1. Banakh, O.S. Nas Yednala Ideyu Naukovoho Poshuku (Do Istoriyi L’vivs’koyi Tseolitno-Khromatohrafichnoyi Hrupy); Shevchenko Scientific Society: L’viv, Ukraine, 2014.
  2. Izmaylov, N.A.; Shrayber, M.S. Kapel’no-khromatografycheskiy analiz i yego primeneniye v farmatsii. Farmatsiya 1938, 3, 1–7.
  3. Izmailov, N.A.; Schreiber, M.S. Discovery of Thin Layer Chromatography; Berezkin, V.G., Ed.; GEOS: Moscow, Russia, 2007.
  4. Pilipenko, A.T.; Zuy, O.V.; Terletskaya, A.V. Ion chromatographic determination of anions in waters using central- and surface-modified sorbents. Khimiya Tekhnologiya Vody 1992, 14, 819–825.
  5. Zuy, O.V.; Terletskaya, A.V.; Falendysh, E.R.; Drapailo, O.M. Rational methods for anion determination in waters. Khimiya I Tekhnologiya Vody 1994, 16, 444–450.
  6. DSTU ISO 10304-1:2003; Water Quality. Determination of Dissolved Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite, Orthophosphate, Bromide, Nitrate and Sulphate Ions by liquid Chromatography Method. Part 1. Metod for Slightly Polluted Waters. Derzhspozhyvstandart: Kyiv, Ukrainy, 2004; 14p.
  7. DSTU ISO 10304-2:2003; Water Quality. Determination of Dissolved Anions by Ion Chromatography Method. Part 2. Determination of Bromide, Chloride, Nitrate, Nitrite, Orthophosphate and Sulphate in Wastewater. Derzhspozhyvstandart: Kyiv, Ukrainy, 2004; 15p.
  8. DSTU ISO 10304-3:2003; Water Quality. Determination of Dissolved Anions by Ion Chromatography Method. Part 3. Determination of Chromate, Iodide, Sulphite, Thiocyanate and Thiosulphate. Derzhspozhyvstandart: Kyiv, Ukrainy, 2005; 18p.
  9. DSTU ISO 10304-4:2003; Water Quality. Determination of Dissolved Anions by Ion Chromatography Method. Part 4. Determination of Chlorate, Chloride and Chlorite in Slightly Polluted Water. Derzhspozhyvstandart: Kyiv, Ukrainy, 2005; 13p.
  10. DSanPiN Ukrainy 2.2.4-171-10; Hygienic Requirements for Drinking Water Intended for Human Consumption. Ministry of Health of Ukraine: Kyiv, Ukraine, 2010.
  11. Kulikov, A.Y.; Loginova, L.P.; Samokhina, L.V. Mitsellyarnaya zhidkostnaya khromatografiya v farmatsevticheskom analize i drugikh oblastyakh analiza. Farmakom 2004, 1, 22–52.
  12. Boichenko, A.P.; Loginova, L.P.; Kulikov, A.U. Micellar liquid chromatography (Review). Part 1. Fundamentals, retention models and optimization of separation. Memoды Oбъeкmы Xuмuчecкoгo Aнaлuзa 2007, 2, 92–116.
  13. Loginova, L.P.; Samokhina, L.V.; Boichenko, A.P.; Kulikov, A.U. Micellar liquid chromatography retention model based on mass-action concept of micelle formation. J. Chromatogr. A 2006, 1104, 190–197.
  14. Loginova, L.; Samokhina, L.V.; Kulikov, A.Y. Kharakteristiki mitselloobrazovaniya kak parametry modeli uderzhivaniya v mitsellyarnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii. Vestnik Khar’k. Nats. Un-Ta 2002, 573, 107–114.
  15. Kulikov, A.U.; Galat, M.N. Comparison of C18 silica bonded phases selectivity in micellar liquid chromatography. J. SeSci. 2009, 32, 1340–1350.
  16. Melnikov, A.U.; Boichenko, A.P.; Kulikov, A.U.; Galat, M.N. Unsupervised classification of chromatographic columns in micellar and conventional reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Liq. Chromatogr. Relat. Technol. 2014, 37, 1016–1031.
  17. Loginova, L.P.; Yakovleva, Y.Y. O sostoyanii poverkhnosti oktadetsilsilikagelya kak statsionarnoy fazy dlya mitsellyarnoy zhidkostnoy khromatografii. Vestnik Khar’k. Nats. Un-Ta. Serнya Khнmнya 2006, 14, 151–156.
  18. Loginova, L.P.; Galat, M.N.; Yakovleva, Y.Y. Vliyaniye nekotorykh alifaticheskikh spirtov i kislot na mitsellyarnyye svoystva dodetsilsul’fata natriya. Vнsnik Khark. Nats. Un-Tu, Serнya Khнmнya 2007, 15, 151–156.
  19. Loginova, L.P. Mitsellyarnaya tonkosloynaya khromatografiya v identifikatsii i kolichestvennom opredelenii biologicheski aktivnykh vesh-chestv In the Analiticheskaya khimiya v sozdanii, standartizatsii i kontrole kachestva lekarstvennykh sredstv. NTMT 2011, 2, 612–631.
  20. Georgiyevskiy, V. Khromatograficheskiye Metody v Analiticheskom Obespechenii Sozdaniya I Kontrolya Kachestva Le-Karstvennykh Sredstv v Ukraine; NTMT: Khar'kov, Ukraine, 2016.
  21. Fedosenko, G.O.; Yegorova, A.V.; Scrypynets, Y.V.; Leonenko, I.I.; Vitukova, E.O. Determination of fenspiride hydrochloride residues on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment surfaces by HPLC method. Fr.-Ukr. J. Chem. 2018, 6, 7–15.
  22. Yegorova, A.V.; Fedosenko, A.A.; Mal'tsev, G.V.; Kashutskiy, S.N.; Antonovich, V.P. Opredeleniye ostatochnykh kolichestv sukhogo ekstrakta list’yev ginkgo biloba na poverkhnostyakh farmatsevticheskogo oborudovaniya metodom vysokoeffektivnoy tonkosloynoy khromatografiikh. Methods Objects Chem. Anal. 2015, 10, 183–188.
  23. Avramenko, A.I.; Pryakhin, O.R.; Denisenko, O.N.; Portnaya, Y.A. Sravnitel’nyy analiz efirnykh masel plodov raznykh sortov PETROSELINUM. Aktual’ni Pyt. Farmatsevtychnoyi Medychnoyi Nauk. Prakt. 2010, XXIII, 4–6. Available online: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/apfimntp_2010_23_1_3 (accessed on 2 May 2022).
  24. Ivan’ko, O.G.; Muzylev, V.V. Farmakokinetika markernykh preparatov antipirina i sul’fadimezina u detey, stradayushchikh bronkhial’noy astmoy. Farmakol. I Toksikol. 1991, 2, 69–70.
  25. Varyns’kyy, B.O.; Kaplaushenko, A.H. Metody VERKH i VERKH-MS v Analizi Likars’kykh Rechovyn v Plazmi ta Syrovattsi Krovi: Monohrafiya; ZDMU: Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine, 2019.
  26. Bidnychenko, Y.I. Suchasni metody sudovo-khimichnoho doslidzhennya otruyen’ blidoyu pohankoyu. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats’. Vypusk dev’yatyy. Prysvyachuyet’sya 95-richchyu vid Dnya narodzhennya profesora V. Kramarenko 2011, 9, 48–56.
  27. Bidnychenko, Y.I. Doslidzhennya hrybnykh toksyniv za dopomohoyu khromatohrafiyi v tonkomu shari sorbentu. Ukrayins’kyy Sudov.-Medychnyy Visnyk 1998, 1, 26–28.
  28. Bidnychenko, Y.I. Vyznachennya hrybnykh toksyniv za dopomohoyu dysk-elektroforezu. Farmatsevtychnyy Zhurnal 1999, 4, 67–68.
  29. Bidnychenko, Y. Detecting Mushroom Peptide Toxins in Body Fluids by Capillary Electrophoresis. LCGC 2001, 19, 1000–1002.
  30. Bidnychenko, Y.I. Zastosuvannya hel’-khromatohrafiyi dlya rozdilennya toksyniv-petydiv hrybiv rodu mukhomor. Farmatsevtychnyy Zhurnal 2000, 6, 63–65.
  31. Bidnychenko, Y. HPLC determination of mushroom peptide toxins in forensic–chemical examination. Am. Lab. 2000, 4, 14.
  32. Raks, V.A.; Turchin, V.A.; Zaitsev, V.N. Chromatographic determination of pesticide 2,4-D in water bodies. J. Water Chem. Technol. 2015, 37, 295–298.
  33. Ivanova, O.M.; Raks, V.A.; Zaitsev, V.N. Highly-effective liquid chromatographic determination of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol in surface waters after its selective solid phase extraction. J. Water Chem. Technol. 2014, 36, 273–279.
  34. Zakharkiv, I.; Zui, M.; Zaitsev, V. Determination of Phthalate Esters in Water and Liquid Pharmaceutical Samples by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction (DLLME) and Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). Anal. Lett. Jan. 2020, 53, 1536–1553.
  35. Levchik, V.M.; Zui, M.F.; Zaitsev, V.N. Capillary and dispersive microextraction of diphenylketones. J. Water Chem. Technol. 2014, 36, 217–224.
  36. Zakharkiv, I.B.; Zui, M.F.; Zaitsev, V.N. Dispersive liquid-phase microextraction for determination of phthalates in water. J. Water Chem. Technol. 2015, 37, 78–84.
  37. Gertsiuk, M.; Samchenko, Y. Separation of nonreacted acrylamide from polyacrylamide gel for endoprothesing. Ars Sep. Acta 2007, 5, 98–101.
  38. Gumenetskiy, V.; Maikova, S.; Zhyznevskiy, V. 1,3-butadiene and methacrylonitrile obtaining using oxidative conversion of C4 olefins over Fe-Te-Mo-Ox catalyst promoted with BaCl2. Chem. Chem. Technol. 2007, 1, 31–34.
  39. Yatchyshyn, I.I.; Harun, Y.A.E.; Polyuzhyn, I.P.; Kushnyrk, V.I.; Koval’s’kyy, Y.A.P.; Dzykh, B. Kolychestvennoe Opredelenye Produktov Alkilyrovaniya Fenola Oktenom-1 Metodom Hzhkh; L’vovs’kyy Politekhnycheskyy Instytut: L’vov, Ukraine, 1988; 15p.
  40. Banakh, O.S. L’vivs’ka tseolitno-khromatohrafichna hrupa. Zurnal Hromatogr. Tov. 2008, 8, 39–49.
  41. Banakh, O.S. Efekt malykh zamishchen’ kationiv Na+ na K+ u tseolitakh typu Y. Zurnal Hromatogr. Tov. 2009, 9, 18–34.
  42. Banakh, O.S. Inversiya posledovatel’nosti elyuirovaniya komponentov iz khromatograficheskoy kolonki. J. Phys. Chem. 1986, 60, 2883–2884.
  43. Andronikashvili, T.G.; Banakh, O.S.; Rogovik, V.I. Chromatographic properties of zeolites modified for analysis of atmospheric pollutants. Pure Appl. Chem. 1989, 61, 2061–2064.
  44. Banakh, O.S.; Baranskyi, R.; Rogovyk, V.; Zybak, I. Modified Zeolites in Gas Chromatography for the Analysis of Air Pollutants. Adsorpt. Sci. Technol. 1996, 14, 209–216.
  45. Banakh, O.S. Physico-Chemical Bases of Zeolite Modification for Chromatographic Determination of Air Pollution; Chemical Sciences: Lviv Polytechnic Institute: Lviv, Ukraine, 1992.
  46. Banakh, O.S.; Zhybak, I.M.; Rohovyk, V.Y. Zmina termodynamichnykh funktsiy adsorbovanykh haziv na formovanykh tseolitakh CuNaM u khromatohrafichnykh kolonkakh. Visnyk L’vivs’koho Un-Tu. Ser. Khim 2002, 41, 279–284.
  47. Banakh, O.S.; Zhybak, I.M. Vplyv kationiv Ag+ na zminu termodynamichnykh parametriv adsorbtsiyi haziv u modyfikatsiyakh mordenitu. Ukr. Khim. Zhurn. 2003, 69, 84–87.
  48. Datsenko, I.I.; Banakh, O.S.; Baranskiy, R.I. Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost’ i Okhrana Okruzhayushchey Sredy; Vyshcha Shkola: Kyiv, Ukraine, 1986; 176p.
  49. Banakh, O.S.; Zhybak, I.M. Hranul’ovani Tseolity X, Y ta M i Khromatohrafiya Haziv-Zabrudnykiv Povitrya; Monohrafiya: Kyiv, Ukraine, 2006; 142p.
  50. Klisenko, M.A.; Lebedeva, T.A. Opredeleniye Malykh Kolichestv Yadokhimikatov v Vozdukhe, Produktakh Pitaniya, Biologicheskikh i Drugikh Sredakh (Prakticheskoye Rukovodstvo Dlya Khimikov i Promyshlenno-Sanitarnykh Vrachey); GOSMEDIZDAT: Kiev, Ukraine, 1964; 184p.
  51. Girenko, D.B.; Klisenko, M.A. Correlation dependence between value of detector signal and structure of derivatives of haloid-containing aromatic-hydrocarbons. Ukr. Khimicheskii Zhurnal 1975, 41, 422–425.
  52. Chmil, V.D.; Sakodynskii, K.I. Interrelation between retention indices and molecular structure of chlorphenoxyalkancarboxylic acid esters. J. Anal. Chem. Ussr. 1984, 39, 1105–1111.
  53. Kuz’minskaia, U.A.; Klisenko, M.A.; Iakushko, V.E.; Bersan, L.V.; Demchenko, V.F. Characteristics of kelthane distribution and accumulation in the tissues of warm-blooded animals. Gig. Sanit. 1983, 3, 34–35.
  54. Ershova, E.A.; Kagan, I.S.; Klisenko, M.A.; Pis’mennaiam, M.V. Metabolism and selective toxicity of organophosphate pesticides. Vestn. Akad. Meditsinskikh Nauk. SSSR 1988, 5, 53–59.
  55. Borisenko, N.F.; Voloshchenko, Z.L.; Demchenko, V.F.; Klisenko, M.A.; Kuchak, I.A. . Hyg. Sanit. 1987, 12, 59–63.
  56. Klisenko, M.A.; Pis’mennaya, M.V. Chromatographic-enzymic determination of residual organophosphorus pesticides in foods and environmental sample. Zh. Anal. Khim. 1988, 43, 354–359.
  57. Klisenko, M.A.; Lebedeva, T.A.; Yurkova, Z.F. Khimicheskiy Analiz Mikrokolichestv Yadokhimikatov; Meditsina: Moscow, Russia, 1972; 312p.
  58. Klisenko, M.A. Metody Opredeleniya Mikrokolichestv Pestitsidov v Produktakh Pitaniya, Kormakh i Vneshney Srede; Kolos: Moscow, Russia, 1977; 368p.
  59. Klisenko, M.A. Metody Opredeleniya Mikrokolichestv Pestitsidov v Produktakh Pitaniya, Kormakh i Vneshney Srede; Spravochnoye Izdaniye; Kolos: Moscow, Russia, 1983; 304p.
  60. Klisenko, M.A.; Aleksandrova, L.G. Opredeleniye Ostatochnykh Kolichestv Pestitsidov; Kundiyev, Y.I., Ed.; Zdorov’ya: Kiev, Ukraine, 1983; 248p.
  61. Klisenko, M.A. Metody Opredeleniya Mikrokolichestv Pestitsidov; Sovmestnoye Izdaniye SSSR-NRB-GDR-VNR-CHSSR-SFRYU; Meditsina: Moscow, Russia, 1984; 256p.
  62. Klisenko, M.A.; Kalinina, A.A.; Novikova, K.F.; Khokhol’kova, G.A. Metody Opredeleniya Mikrokolichestv Pestitsidov v Produktakh Pitaniya, Kormakh i Vneshney Srede. Spravochnik v Dvukh Tomakh Sost; Kolos: Moscow, Russia, 1992; Volume 1, 567p.
  63. Klisenko, M.A.; Kalinina, A.A.; Novikova, K.F.; Khokhol’kova, G.A. Metody Opredeleniya Mikrokolichestv Pestitsidov v Produktakh Pitaniya, Kormakh i Vneshney Srede. Spravochnik v Dvukh Tomakh. Sost; Agropromizdat: Moskow, Russia, 1992; Volume 2, 416p.
More
This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!
Video Production Service