High-speed motorized spindles tend to develop in the direction of high precision, high speed, low energy consumption, high efficiency, and high reliability.
As modern machine tools are developing towards high speed and high precision, the technical requirements for the spindles of machine tools are increasing. The motorized spindle is one of the core functional components of high-speed machine tools; the motor of a motorized spindle is placed inside the spindle unit of the machine tool to drive the spindle. Therefore, the machine drive structure is simplified, and “zero drive” is achieved . Because the motorized spindle has the advantages of its compact structure, is lightweight, has small inertia and good dynamic performance, the dynamic balance of the machine tool is improved and the vibration and noise are avoided. The structure of traditional rolling bearings makes it difficult to meet the requirements of high speed and high precision for high-speed machine tools, so the research of bearings is one of the key research objects in the field of high-speed machine tools . As the key support technology for high-speed motorized spindles, bearings must meet the requirements of high-speed operation, and have high rotary accuracy and low-temperature rise, in addition to long service life, especially with regard to maintaining the accuracy. The current high-speed motorized spindle applied bearings are mainly angular contact ball bearings, liquid floating bearings, air bearings, and magnetic bearings. But the speed and precision of the spindle-bearing improvement is based on the premise of high-precision dynamic balance. For motorized spindles, the unbalance phenomenon is inevitable due to the influence of factors such as manufacturing, installation error, and material unevenness.
Figure 1. Analysis diagram of high-speed electric spindle technology.
The high-speed precision bearing is one of the core supporting components of a high-speed motorized spindle. Bearings are often in high-speed or ultra-high-speed operation, so the bearings must have a series of characteristics such as good high-speed performance, high dynamic load-carrying capacity, superior lubrication performance, and low heat generation. At present, high-speed precision bearings have become the key research and development technology in the world. There are four main types of bearings for high-speed spindles, including angular contact ceramic ball bearings, liquid floating bearings, air bearings, and magnetic bearings. The specific classification is shown in Figure 2 . In addition, after extensive literature research, surveys are presented in this section and summarized in Table 1.
Figure 2. High-speed precision bearings classification.
Table 1. Research work on bearing structures.
|Wu et al. ||Grease lubricated ceramic bearing||Ceramic bearing||Avoid the noise caused by fracture or slipping of the inner ring of the bearing|
|Liu et al. ||New Dynamic pressure gas radial ceramic bearing||Ceramic bearing||High stability of high-speed rotating spindle|
|Jiang et al. ||Liquid Hydrostatic bearing of the slotted water cavity type with varying opposing areas||Liquid floating bearing||Provide large hydrostatic load capacity and overcome the defect of low rotation accuracy of spindle at high speed|
|Zhang et al. ||Hydrostatic floating bearing of through-hole type||Liquid floating bearing||Simple structure,easy to achieve the purpose of spindle at high speed|
|Ko et al. ||Hydrostatic bearing monitoring system and monitoring method||Liquid floating bearing||Real-time monitoring of hydrostatic bearing performance and fault warning|
|Yu et al. ||Ultra-precise air bearing with active compound throttling type||Air bearing||Suppress micro-amplitude vibration of air-bearing, improve dynamic stiffness|
|Yin et al. ||Air bearing with replaceable throttle plug||Air bearing||Effectively avoid the phenomenon of "air hammer" in bearing|
|Keun et al. ||Improved structure of the new air bearing||Air bearing||Avoid thermal deformation of bearing or spindle caused by dynamic instability of the rotor and high speeds|
|Chen et al. ||Hybrid magnetic bearing structure||Magnetic bearing||Effective simplification of magnetic floating bearing structure,saving cost|
|Zhang et al. ||Protective structures for
magnetic bearings and magnetic
|Magnetic bearing||Solve the problem of spindle and
bearing wear due to easy failure of
the magnetic bearing protection
|Chen et al. ||Coil type axial permanent
magnet electric magnetic bearing
|Magnetic bearing||Realize axial bidirectional self-
stabilization, less resistance and
lower energy consumption
|Zhang et al. ||Influence coefficient method for
maximum total phase difference
|Influence coefficient method||Provide the theoretical basis for the
two-sided impact factor method
|Chen et al. ||Online dynamic balancing method for
low pressure rotors with least squares
|The vibration amplitude of the rotor
|Wang et al. ||Single plane influence coefficient method||The problems of misalignment and long equilibrium time during mass movement are solved|
|Zhang et al. ||Single plane influence coefficient method||The choice of counterweight position is
|Zhao et al. ||Dual-plane influence coefficient method||Verified that the dual-plane influence
coefficient method is more effective in
optimizing vibration measurement points
|Zhang et al. ||Dual-plane influence coefficient method||The effect law of counterweight size with counterweight plane shift was found|
|Zhu et al. ||Single and dual-plane influence coefficient method||The multifaceted influence coefficient method applied to flexible rotors is derived|
|Khulief et al. ||Combined influence coefficient method and modal equilibrium method||Low-speed balancing problem of
high-speed rotors is solved
|Qu et al. ||Holographic spectrum theory||Modal equilibrium method||A new technique of holographic spectrum is introduced on the basis of the modal
|Liu et al. ||On-site holographic dynamic balancing method||Multiple sensor information is fused with flexible rotor balancing technology to
improve rotor balancing accuracy
|Chen et al. ||Modal dynamic balance method for
|The reliability of the flexible rotor modal dynamic balancing method was verified|
|Liu et al. ||Dual-plane spindle balancing method based on the modalities of the spindle||The validity of dual-plane dynamic
balancing method is proved
|Zhong et al. ||Modal equilibrium theory||Avoid the blindness of choosing the frontal and balance speed|
|Sun et al. ||The dynamic balancing method without trial weight based on multi-factor
coupled finite element dynamics model
|No trial weight method||The unbalanced vibration of each stage of the spindle is suppressed|
|Bin et al. ||The least squares method solves the
system of equilibrium vector equations to obtain the equilibrium counterweight
|Complete dynamic balancing of the flexible spindle without trial weight is achieved|
|Jia et al. ||The dynamic balancing method without trial weight for high-speed flexible rotors||The problem of low balancing efficiency
due to multiple test weights required for
traditional dynamic balancing is solved
|Zhang et al. ||Based on a multivariant finite element analysis model, the dynamic balancing method without trial weight
|The model can accurately describe the
dynamic characteristics of the spindle
|Xu et al. ||Dynamic balancing method without trial weight||The method is proven to reduce the unbalance of rotating shafts|
|Zhang et al. ||Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization are combined to identify multi-point unbalance of rotor||The reliability of neural network algorithms for online prediction of rotor's unevenness is proposed|
|Zhang et al. ||The dynamic balancing method without trial for modalities||Suppression of vibration caused by rotor unbalance|
The thermal error prediction model of the high-speed motorized spindle is the core of the thermal error compensation system. Using temperature data to predict the change of thermal displacement, the establishment of the thermal error compensation system. In the study of thermal error modeling of high-speed motorized spindles, researchers have widely used the multiple regression method, gray theory and neural network method. In this section, the research results related to thermal error modeling are presented and summarized in Table 4.
|参考||Brief Summary||Method||Effect of Prediction Accuracy|
|Xue et al. ||Partial least squares regression method||Multiple linear regression method||Average|
|Miao et al.||Unbiased estimation splitting method||Multiple linear regression method||Good|
|Zhou et al. ||Classical multiple linear regression method||Multiple linear regression method||Fair|
|Jiang et al. ||Standard grey system model||Multiple linear regression method||Average|
|Zhang et al. ||Serial grey neural network and parallel grey neural network||Grey theory||Good|
|Wang et al. ||Comparison of grey prediction model and BP neural network prediction model||-||-|
|Ma et al. ||Particle swarm optimization optimized BP model||Neural network||Good|
|Xie et al. ||Thinking evolutionary algorithm optimized BP model||Neural network||Good|
|Wu et al. ||Simulated annealing algorithm coupled with particle swarm algorithm to optimize BP model||Neural network||Good|
|Sun et al. ||Bat algorithm optimized BP model||Neural network||Excellent|
|Lv et al. ||Generalized radial basis function neural||Neural network||Good|
With the rapid development of high-speed cutting, CNC technology and the needs of practical applications, the performance of the high-speed motorized spindle of CNC machine tools has put forward higher and higher requirements. Based on the analysis of the key technologies of the high-speed motorized spindle, the research direction of high-speed motorized spindle unit technology is summarized. The main aspects are as follows.
(3) To improve the running accuracy of the motorized spindle, the research on the generalization of dynamic balancing technology, using a dynamic balancing method that capable to balance the rigid spindle and flexible spindle at the same time, which would help to reduce the impact of vibration on the high-speed motorized spindle, must be accelerated.
(4) To reduce the influence of heat generation and thermal error of the spindle, and improve the accuracy of the spindle, research on the application of computer simulation technology in the design of high-speed motorized spindles must be strengthened, and the development of highly reliable modeling methods to realize the compensation of errors must be achieved.
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/machines10020145