Low-carbon tourism supply chain: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.

This paper integrates a low-carbon tourism supply chain consisting of a low-carbon tourist attraction (LTA) providing a low-carbon service and an online travel agency (OTA) responsible for big data marketing. Consumers may also encounter sudden crisis events that occur in the tourist attraction during their visit, and the occurrence of crisis events can damage the low-carbon goodwill of the tourist attraction to the detriment of the sustainable development of the supply chain. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate how tourism firms can develop dynamic strategies in the pre-crisis environment if they envision the occurrence of a crisis event and how crisis events affect interfirm cooperation. Our findings provide important managerial insights for enterprises in the tourism supply chain and suggest that they need to not only become aware of the tourist attraction crisis events, but also, more importantly, they need to adjust their appropriate input strategies based on the degree of anticipation of the crisis. 

  • low-carbon tourism supply chain
  • sudden crisis event
  • big data marketing
  • low-carbon goodwill
  • online travel agency
  • pre-crisis and post-crisis environment

2.1. 低碳旅游

一些学者对旅游景区建设评价指标体系、政府激励措施、消费者认知和低碳旅游选择等方面进行了广泛的研究。黄[ 13 ]借鉴了台湾坪林低碳旅游景区建设的成功经验,阐述了建设低碳旅游景区的意义。王等人。[ 14]利用德尔菲法构建低碳行为绩效评价指标体系,采用层次分析法,对张家界(世界遗产景区)32个景区的低碳绩效进行系统测度。文章提取了能够显着影响旅游景区低碳行为表现的关键驱动因素,发现张家界景区在低碳行为的实施方面表现相对较好,但仍有很大的改进和提升空间。赵等人。[ 15]构建了低碳背景下基于旅游发展的政府与企业演化博弈模型,从动态视角研究了两者的演化策略,发现政府与企业只有从长远的角度才能做出更好的决策。促进企业低碳发展。他等人。[ 16 ]基于可持续发展背景构建政府、旅游企业和游客之间的演化博弈模型,探索政府将传统旅游发展为绿色旅游的有效绿色激励机制。沙里宁 [ 17]发现政府监管是很大程度上鼓励民营企业将传统旅游转变为可持续旅游的有效途径。Xu and Fox [ 18 ] 发现人类中心或生态中心的价值观显着影响了人们对旅游和可持续发展的态度。金秀等人。[ 19 ] 调查客人如何访问绿色酒店并得出结论,绿色酒店的一系列印象可能会导致更有益的行为意图。陈等人。[ 20] 通过结构方程模型 (SEM) 的实证结果发现,消费者对环境的担忧确实对他们对绿色酒店的态度、感知的行为控制和感知的道德义务产生了积极的影响。因此,低碳旅游的研究日益成为企业和学术界的一个重要方向,但将供应链管理思想引入低碳旅游并考虑低碳旅游之间利益差异博弈的研究较少。企业 [ 7 , 21 ]。

2.2. 突发危机事件

The occurrence of sudden crisis events often has a great impact on the sustainable development of enterprises [12]. Therefore, many scholars have conducted a lot of research on the impact of such crisis events on enterprises and their coping strategies [22,23]. Jang et al. [24] examined changes in the competitive response of two companies to a defamatory product injury crisis event and its impact on the relationship between advertising and consumer online search behavior. Wang et al. [25] compared the differences between traditional and emergency decision problems and proposed an emergency response strategy for emergencies with complex system characteristics through the special constraints of emergency decision. Using a state-space model, Liu et al. [26] found that when a product suffers an unexpected crisis event, a company’s product recall behavior brings negative product information, which adversely affects brand preference and advertising effectiveness. Based on a third-party recycling model, Wang et al. [27] confirmed that a coordinated strategy of a closed-loop supply chain is an effective way to deal with emergencies. So, if there is a sudden crisis event in a tourist attraction, what kind of impact will it have on tourism enterprises and consumers? In addition, if tourism companies can predict the occurrence of future scenic crisis events, how can they develop their own optimal strategies? Unfortunately, few studies are involved in this topic, and most of the literature selects specific scenic spots or single types of scenic spots to study the impact of emergencies and the coping strategies of scenic spots [28,29,30]. Therefore, the idea of supply chain management is introduced into the sudden crisis events of tourist attractions more in line with the realistic requirements. In addition, the repu tation of tourist attractions is dynamic and subject to the influence of tourism enterprises’ decisions; therefore, it is necessary to consider the dynamic nature of the reputation of tourist attractions and the long-term impact of this dynamic on the economic, environmental and social benefits of the supply chain.

2.3. Cost-Sharing Contracts

Numerous scholars have found that one of the most effective means of improving the performance of supply chain members is cooperation among members and that cooperation among members manifests itself in different contract designs: Quantity flexibility, two-part tariff and cost-sharing contracts, etc. [31,32,33,34]. However, this paper considers cost-sharing contracts among supply chain members. Bai et al. [35] proposed a revenue and promotion cost-sharing contract and a two-part tariff contract to perfectly coordinate a sustainable supply chain system consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. In the presence of consumers’ environmental awareness or carbon taxes, Yang and Chen [36] investigated the effects of revenue sharing and cost-sharing contracts offered by retailers on a manufacturers’ carbon emission reduction efforts and the profitability of both members. They found that both contracts stimulated the manufacturers’ incentives to reduce emissions, increased manufacturers’ emission reduction levels and promoted the profitability of both members. Li et al. [37] studied the impact of revenue sharing and cost-sharing contracts offered by retailers on the low carbon strategies of members with and without bargaining channels in low carbon supply chains and found that both contracts coordinate the entire supply chain, but neither contract coordinates the supply chain if the supply chain members bargain over the sharing rate, regardless of the symmetry of bargaining power. Xiao et al. [38] constructed a sustainable supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a supplier and investigated the effect of cost-sharing contracts on the sustainable investment level of the supplier and the profit of the supply chain members. They found that cost-sharing facilitated the improvement of the investment level of the supplier and achieved the Pareto improvement of the profit of the supply chain members. All of the above studies have investigated the impact of cost-sharing contracts on supply chain members’ decision making and performance. However, since most studies consider member decision making and cost-sharing contracts from a static perspective, it is necessary to consider the long-term effects of the dynamics of supply chain member decision making on the economic, environmental and social benefits of the supply chain.
In summary, most of the existing studies on low-carbon tourism mainly focus on the sustainability issues of individual tourism enterprises and the development of corporate strategies for supply chains composed of multiple tourism enterprises. They neglected the issue of corporate cooperation among tourism enterprises when they form a supply chain. In addition, tourists may also encounter sudden crisis events that occur in the tourist attraction during their visit, and whether crisis events will affect interfirm cooperation is a question that is bound to arise and that is worth exploring. Therefore, our study extends this part of the literature. In addition, research on sudden crisis events has mostly focused on the issue of corporate response strategies after the crisis, neglecting the issue of strategy formulation before the crisis. Finally, studies on the effects of cost-sharing contracts on interfirm cooperation in supply chains have mostly studied the impact of cost-sharing contracts on supply chain performance from a static perspective. They ignore the dynamic change characteristics of the environment in which firms are located and the impact of firms’ current decisions on future supply chain sustainability.

This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/su13158228

This entry is offline, you can click here to edit this entry!