Trends of Electronic Marketing: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.
Subjects: Business

Electronic marketing (eM) is a mechanism to convey knowledge about a product by the medium of the internet. Electronic marketing remains a developing system which provides such a terrace, which made it possible to run all types of electronic promotions through internet-oriented technologies.

  • electronic marketing
  • tendencies
  • eM

1. Introduction

In the last couple of years, the research on electronic and digital marketing has seen immense growth [1][2]. Several researchers have conducted empirical examinations on different internet-based promotional mediums, including mobile marketing [3] network marketing [4], intranet marketing [5], digital marketing [6], and internet marketing [7]. Studies on electronic marketing, especially with consideration of bibliometric analysis, are missing in the literature, which is the unique contribution of this article. Therefore, to effectively understand and steer any academic field such as electronic marketing, practitioners and academicians must be aware of the current trends and trajectories of any field.

Brodie et al. [4] declared e-marketing an origin of communication between customers and organizations by using communication technologies. In a previous research study [8], the model consisted of distinctive marketing observations such as interaction marketing, database marketing, transaction marketing, and network marketing. After quite some time, Coviello et al. [8] also branded a novel element of promotion actions that is recognized as e-marketing. Afterward, the investigators concentrated on the research of electronic marketing in diverse frameworks and magnitudes [9].

2. Trends and Future Research in Electronic Marketing

2.1. Leading Countries in Electronic Marketing Research

Several countries are publishing significant studies on electronic marketing. In this section, we look into the output and effect of the most prominent countries between 2000 and 2019. Table 1 offers the outcomes of the top 10 nations’ publications in electronic marketing exploration. The position was based on the number of papers. In the case of a tie, the country with the most recent publication was ranked higher.

Table 1. The most productive countries and regions.
Rank Country/Region Publications Citations
1 United States 118 2788
2 United Kingdom 50 899
3 India 27 90
4 Australia 26 220
5 China 25 384
6 Greece 24 428
7 Iran 14 147
8 Canada 12 694
9 Taiwan 11 289
10 Jordan 10 107

2.2. The Most Productive Institutes and Universities

One of the more important aspects of the bibliometric analysis was to see which universities were the most prolific. The outcomes in Table 2 display that Panepistimion Makedonias was the most productive university. Deakin University ranked second, and the University of South Africa ranked third, followed by Cairo University and Birmingham City Business School. The University of Auckland, Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and Aristotle University of Thessaloniki followed closely.

Table 2. The ten most productive universities.
Rank University/Institute Publications Citations
1 Panepistimion Makedonias 8 172
2 Deakin University 6 74
3 University of South Africa 5 1
4 Cairo University 5 15
5 Birmingham City Business School 5 184
6 University of Auckland 4 203
7 Lingnan University, Hong Kong 4 294
8 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 4 65
9 Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam 4 86
10 Southern Illinois University Carbondale 4 7

2.3. Leading Journals

Another essential part of the bibliometric review was to look at the most active sources (i.e., sources that conducted more electronic marketing research than others). The top ten sources that published electronic marketing research are listed in Table 3. The International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing was the top journal, with 48 publications between 2000 and 2019.

Table 3. Top ten sources that published electronic marketing research.
Rank Source Publications
1 International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing 48
2 International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising 9
3 Marketing Intelligence and Planning 9
4 Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics 6
5 Journal of Internet Commerce 6
6 Marketing and Consumer Behavior: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications 6
7 Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Business ICEB 6
8 African Journal of Hospitality Tourism and Leisure 5
9 International Journal of Business Information Systems 5
10 Advances in Electronic Marketing 4

2.4. The Most Productive Authors in Electronic Marketing

In order to see who published their works on electronic marketing most frequently, we present the results in Table 4.

Table 4. The most productive authors in electronic marketing.
Rank Author Affiliation No. of Papers Citations
1 El-Gohary H. Qatar University, College of Business and Economics, Doha, Qatar 7 190
2 Cui G. Lingnan University, Hong Kong, Faculty of Business, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 4 294
3 Shaltoni A.M. Alfaisal University, College of Business, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 4 46
4 Ahuja V. Amity University, Noida, Amity Business School, Noida, India 4 0
5 Guo X. Carl H. Lindner College of Business, Cincinnati, United States 3 289
6 Yan R. Texas A&M University, College Station, United States 3 155
7 Vlachopoulou M. Panepistimion Makedonias, Department of Applied Informatics, Thessaloniki, Greece 3 67
8 Tsekouropoulos G. Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 3 58
9 Andreopoulou Z. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Laboratory of Forest Informatics, Thessaloniki, Greece 3 58
10 Chong W.K. Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, International Business School Suzhou, Suzhou, China 3 42
11 Waheed A. University of Management and Technology Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan 3 21
12 Fedorko R. University of Presov in Presov, Faculty of Management, Presov-Lubotice, Slovakia 3 15
13 Bacˇík R. University of Presov in Presov, Faculty of Management, Martin, Slovakia 3 15
14 Štefko R. University of Presov in Presov, Faculty of Management, Presov-Lubotice, Slovakia 3 13
15 Sürer A. Gaziantep Üniversitesi, Department of International Trade and Logistics, Gaziantep, Turkey 3 7

3. Future Directions

The scope of e-marketing is not restricted to an exact area. Nevertheless, it is a valued system to convey the product information inside a country as well as across a country [10].

The researchers may consider more studies in the future related to e-marketing as summarized below:

  • The future studies might be conducted using an empirical approach to ensure the validity and significance of electronic marketing within deviser contexts globally;

  • A comprehensive study could be expanded with different domains, such as from business-to-consumer or business-to-government, to confirm the significance of such developing communication channels in marketing practices and to contribute in the respective literature;

  • The future studies could be regarded toward other geographical locations with distinct variables;

  • The future studies might be expanded with the moderating effects of different variables, such as age, gender, social class, or any environmental or political factor, to ensure a moderating role between electronic marketing and the remaining aspects. In the past, a few studies of e-marketing adopted moderating factors. Therefore, by doing so, researchers could better understand the relational strength of e-marketing;

  • The future studies might be conducted to develop comprehensive scales for e-marketing, which are still missing in the literature;

  • How e-marketing could be an effective tool to transmit product or service messages, especially in developing nations, could be an important question to address in the future;

  • What are the most effective antecedents of e-marketing could be another question for future consideration;

  • Determining which is the most effective sub-tool of e-marketing for global communications that could be part of future investigations;

  • How electronic marketing can create value for distinct stakeholders could also be a question for consideration in the future;

  • The future work might consider publications that were published in other languages to understand the real picture of e-marketing research among scholars worldwide;

  • When analyzing the literature, it became clear that electronic marketing studies have used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. However, in the author’s opinion, there is no such thing as an ideal research methodology or procedure. Since each approach or method has its own set of disadvantages and limitations, a researcher must choose the most suitable research methodology and method for his study. In this regard, the author strongly advises using a triangulation method when conducting future research in the field of e-marketing. Researchers can use all three types of triangulation (data, method, and methodological triangulation) or only one of them, in which quantitative and qualitative data can be obtained using a hybrid research approach, such as a survey and case study strategy, as well as appropriate research methods, such as questionnaires and interviews, to answer various levels of potential studies.

This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/jtaer16050094


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