Technological Advancements for Neuromodulation and Biofeedback: History
Please note this is an old version of this entry, which may differ significantly from the current revision.

Primary objectives of neurofeedback training (NFT) are to improve concentration, stress and anxiety management, and performance optimisation. NFT, a form of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of electroencephalography (EEG) to teach the self-regulation of brain functions, has emerged as a promising approach for improving the mental skills that are essential for high-level performance in precision sports. 

  • neurofeedback
  • neuromodulation
  • concentration

1. Introduction

The psychological and cognitive components of athletic performance have garnered significant interest within the realms of sports science and psychology. Precision sports, such as archery and shooting, demand not only physical skill but also high levels of mental concentration, emotional control, and cognitive flexibility. These mental attributes are critical, as they directly influence an athlete’s ability to perform under pressure, maintain focus over prolonged periods, and manage the stress and anxiety that competitive environments engender. Traditional training methodologies in these sports have primarily focused on the physical aspects of performance enhancement, often overlooking the substantial impact of psychological and cognitive training.
In shooting sports, mental qualities that affect attentional control and emotional states are constantly required, especially in the phases leading up to shooting at a target [1]. It has been shown that adequate emotional control conducted by the athlete together with high mental efficiency can improve performance in target shooting [2]. Archery as well as shooting are sports where the psychological aspects have such a weighted effect on performance that they are referred to as mental sports. For this reason, they require constant and adequate psychophysiological training [3]. Taha and collaborators conducted a study in which they sought to define the mental abilities of archers, establishing that a good archer must exhibit adequate mental concentration, optimally manage stress and anxiety, and be able to control internal emotional states [4]. A lack of full emotional and mental control can lead to states of mental blockage, caused by actual panic attacks on the technical conduct of the shot [5][6].
Recent advancements in neuroscience and sports psychology have underscored the potential of neurofeedback training (NFT) as a tool for cognitive and psychological enhancement. NFT, a form of biofeedback that uses real-time displays of electroencephalography (EEG) to teach the self-regulation of brain functions, has emerged as a promising approach for improving the mental skills that are essential for high-level performance in precision sports [7]. Through the modulation of specific EEG frequency bands, NFT aims to enhance cognitive processes such as attentional focus, stress management, and emotional regulation—key components that can determine the fine line between success and failure in sports competitions [8][9]. In addressing the multifaceted nature of neurofeedback (NFT) within the realm of sports performance enhancement, it is imperative to acknowledge that NFT extends beyond the commonly discussed electroencephalogram (EEG) applications. A critical component of NFT, especially pertinent in precision sports such as shooting, encompasses heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory training—key physiological aspects that significantly impact performance. Unlike EEG, which primarily focuses on brain wave training, HRV and respiratory training within the NFT framework aim to optimise athletes’ physiological control, enhancing their ability to maintain calmness and precision under pressure. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of incorporating HRV and respiratory training in improving athletes’ performance, underscoring the importance of a comprehensive approach to neurofeedback that includes these physiological feedback mechanisms [10][11][12]. Thus, while EEG-based neurofeedback plays a significant role in cognitive enhancement, the broader spectrum of NFT, encompassing heart rate and breathing control, is indispensable in sports science, offering a holistic approach to athlete training and performance optimization.
EEG-based neurofeedback involves the placement of electrodes on the scalp, which serve to detect EEG signals from various cortical areas [13]. The subject, through operant conditioning, manipulates these signals by receiving instantaneous feedback. This feedback is provided in auditory, visual, or a combined audio-visual form, enabling the individual to influence and modify brain wave frequency bands in the targeted regions of interest [14].
EEG-based neurofeedback training operates through the modulation of EEG frequency bands, where delta (1–4 Hz) is recognised as the slowest wave associated with deep sleep, followed by theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), and gamma (30 Hz and above) bands, each associated with progressively higher cognitive functions. In the context of enhancing cognitive flexibility and performance in precision sports, neurofeedback training specifically targets the optimization of these frequency bands. For instance, enhancing alpha and theta waves can improve relaxation and concentration, crucial for precision sports like archery and shooting, while the modulation of beta waves can enhance alertness and decision making [15]. Figure 1 provides a detailed visualization of EEG oscillations and their corresponding cognitive processes, offering insights into the specific brain wave patterns associated with different cognitive states and their implications for neurofeedback interventions in sports performance enhancement.
Figure 1. EEG oscillations and their corresponding cognitive processes.
Therefore, cortical oscillations can be used to understand the involvement of the cerebral cortex during the performance of different tasks. Initially, the changes are short-lived, but gradually, they become more long-lasting, and it has been shown that, with continuous feedback, brain wave patterns can be retrained to improve flexibility and cognitive control [16].
Neurofeedback training extends beyond EEG, utilising fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy), and other methods to collect neural signals, offering insights into the brain’s functional dynamics. This comprehensive approach enables the targeted enhancement of cognitive flexibility and control—crucial for adapting strategies under varied conditions and orchestrating actions aligned with goals. In emphasising the role of neurofeedback training in sports, it is crucial to highlight its contribution to enhancing mental agility and focus. Such improvements are particularly vital for athletes in precision sports, such as shooting and archery, where NFT’s advanced brain training techniques play a key role in optimising performance.
Building on the foundational understanding of NFT’s application in sports, it is essential to delve into its scientific underpinnings and the specific cognitive functions it aims to enhance in athletes participating in precision sports. The application of neurofeedback training in the realm of precision sports is grounded in its ability to enhance specific cognitive functions critical for peak performance. NFT operates by allowing athletes to gain real-time insights into their brain wave patterns, facilitating the development of strategies to regulate these patterns for improved focus, attention, and emotional regulation. Scientifically, NFT’s efficacy lies in its targeted approach to enhancing neuroplasticity—the brain’s ability to reorganise itself by forming new neural connections. This is particularly relevant in sports such as shooting and archery, where minute lapses in concentration can significantly impact accuracy and outcomes. In the context of precision sports, cognitive functions such as sustained attention, emotional regulation, and visuospatial processing are critical for optimal performance. NFT specifically targets these cognitive domains by training athletes to enhance their neural activity patterns that correlate with these functions.
Research has demonstrated that NFT can effectively improve attentional control, a cognitive function that enables athletes to maintain focus on their task while ignoring distractions. This is crucial in precision sports where sustained attention and mental steadiness are paramount [17]. Moreover, NFT has been shown to enhance emotional regulation, aiding athletes in managing anxiety and pressure, conditions often encountered in competitive sports environments [18]. These improvements in cognitive functions contribute directly to an athlete’s ability to perform consistently under stress, making NFT a valuable tool in the mental training regimen of precision sports athletes.
The scientific basis for NFT’s role in sports performance enhancement is further supported by studies utilising neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and fNIRS, which provide empirical evidence of changes in brain activity patterns associated with successful NFT interventions. These changes often correlate with improvements in cognitive functions, underscoring NFT’s potential to influence brain areas responsible for attention, emotional regulation, and decision-making processes that are crucial in precision sports [19].
Incorporating NFT into the training programs of athletes in precision sports thus offers a science-backed approach to cultivating the mental skills necessary for excellence. By focusing on specific cognitive functions that underpin precision and accuracy, NFT equips athletes with the mental agility and focus required to excel in their respective disciplines.
Despite the growing interest and preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of NFT in sports, the literature remains fragmented with respect to its application and outcomes in precision sports. 

2. Technological Advancements for Neuromodulation and Biofeedback

2.1. The Significance of Neuromodulation in Enhancing Shooting Sports Performance

The importance of induced neuromodulation in sports contexts with a focus on target shooting sports is been confirmed. There is an increasing attention and care for performance details in shooting athletes. This is confirmed by the scientific community, which has long since consolidated the theoretical and practical bases of physical and mental aspects, thanks to training aimed at the growth of less-experienced athletes [20]. Studying in detail how an experienced athlete behaves from a mental point of view has allowed researchers to understand which direction to take in order to intervene in improving mental abilities [21]. Research on neuromodulation processes has found fertile ground on the improvement of these qualities and is identified as an effective support to be adopted in the athlete’s growth phases. The logic of this process is aimed at increasing performance, which is based on the identification of cortical activities and specific states or behavioural aspects deemed optimal.
It has been repeatedly demonstrated in the literature that neuromodulation training structured in micro-cycles of intervention of varying durations can induce momentary or permanent changes in the electroencephalographic tracing, resulting in improvements in intellectual, cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects, the dynamic combination of which plays a concrete role in the improvement of performance and the required skills [22][23][24].

2.2. From Landers’s Early Work to Contemporary Neuromodulation Strategies

Research began with these assumptions thirty years ago with the contribution of Landers who, not surprisingly, proposed an intervention with archers using neurofeedback/biofeedback aspects [25][26]. In recent years, progress has been made with findings that have seen a concrete and effective improvement in performance abilities, mostly treating physiological aspects [27]. For this reason, many studies have focused on physiological modulation, finding positive associations between physiological variables and the mental and performance aspects of shooters [28][29][30]. As far as neuromodulation is concerned, few studies have been presented and compared. In this regard, the results showed significant inconsistencies due to limitations regarding the sample, intervention methodology, and sport discipline [31]. For this reason, researchers believe that research must evolve by differentiating, with integrated protocols, both neurofeedback and biofeedback [32].

2.3. Synergistic Approaches: Combining Neurofeedback with Physiological Biofeedback

In exploring the synergistic effects of neurofeedback and biofeedback on athlete performance, it is critical to delineate the specific types of biofeedback employed alongside neurofeedback and their targeted physiological processes. Neurofeedback, focusing on the modulation of brain wave patterns through EEG signals, aims to enhance cognitive functions such as concentration and stress management. Concurrently, biofeedback encompasses a broader spectrum of physiological monitoring and training, including but not limited to heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback for autonomic nervous system regulation, electromyography (EMG) biofeedback for muscle tension control, and galvanic skin response (GSR) biofeedback for emotional arousal and stress response management.
Integrating neurofeedback with HRV biofeedback can offer a holistic approach to optimising both mental and physiological states, fostering a psychophysiological coherence essential for peak performance. This combination is particularly advantageous in precision sports, where both cognitive focus and physiological calmness are paramount. Furthermore, EMG biofeedback can be strategically applied to sports such as archery and shooting, where muscle control directly influences accuracy and stability. By learning to manage muscle tension, athletes can achieve greater precision and steadiness. Additionally, incorporating GSR biofeedback can aid athletes in managing emotional arousal, ensuring that performance is not hindered by stress or anxiety.
This integrated biofeedback approach not only aims to enhance specific mental or physical aspects of athletic performance but also promotes a comprehensive improvement in the athlete’s overall ability to maintain optimal performance states under competitive pressure. By specifying and implementing distinct biofeedback modalities in conjunction with neurofeedback, the training protocols can be tailored more effectively to meet the unique needs of athletes in precision sports, thereby maximising their potential for high-level performance. An integrated approach would complete the intervention framework, shedding light on unresolved doubts and launching a procedure for new training. For this approach, research has found interesting insights into the technical act of shooting, showing more than satisfactory results [33][34][35].

2.4. Customising Neurofeedback for Enhanced Psychophysiological Consistency in Athletes

Based on the specific profiles of athletes, it has been suggested that those with a high capacity for self-regulation may benefit more from NFT, while athletes with lower sensitivity to biofeedback techniques may require complementary approaches [36]. Studies have shown that professional athletes exhibit different patterns of brain activity compared to beginners, indicating the potential relevance of individualised neurofeedback training for athletes [37]. Additionally, neurofeedback training properly adjusted to the athlete’s individual abilities has been found to impact psychophysiological consistency. Furthermore, the influence of noise or its absence on the performance of athletes and the success of NFT protocols has been highlighted, suggesting the need for further investigation in this area [38].
Moreover, it has been suggested that measures taken before and after stressors, based on the concept of autonomic response specificity, may be relevant in understanding athletes’ ability to self-regulate and their world ranking [39]. The athlete’s profile, which includes individual neurodynamic indicators, behavioural characteristics, and psychophysiological indicators such as EEG and heart rate variability, have been proposed as a valuable tool for understanding the functional state of athletes. Additionally, the use of biofeedback and neurofeedback with Olympic athletes has been discussed in the context of managing the stress response, emphasising the interconnectedness of the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems in the stress response [40].
Furthermore, the potential impact of neurofeedback training on athletes’ performance has been explored, with elite athletes serving as a model for understanding the effects of mastery, expertise, and skill execution [41]. Additionally, the results of a study on young football players suggest that correct feedback through neurofeedback can lead to improved performance, while incorrect feedback may reduce performance, highlighting the importance of precise feedback in neurofeedback training [42].
The literature suggests that individualised neurofeedback training may have a significant impact on athletes’ psychophysiological profiles and performance. The potential benefits of neurofeedback training for athletes with specific psychophysiological profiles, the influence of noise on performance, and the interconnectedness of various physiological systems in the stress response warrant further research to enhance our understanding of the application of neurofeedback in sports performance.

2.5. Exploring Neuromodulation’s Role in Athlete Recovery and Mental Well-Being

Future research should also investigate the impact of NFT on athletes’ recovery from injury and mental well-being, exploring how neuromodulation techniques can support resilience and psychological recovery. In exploring this potential use of neuromodulation, it is important to consider the current status of neuromodulatory therapies for consciousness disorders and the therapeutic application of neuromodulation in the human swallowing system [43]. These references provide insights into the potential applications of neuromodulation techniques in addressing neurological conditions, which could be relevant to understanding their potential impact on athletes’ psychological resilience and recovery.
In the context of neuromodulation, the promising role of neuromodulation in improving ischemic stroke recovery and the activity and neuromodulatory input contributing to the recovery of rhythmic output after decentralisation in a central pattern generator offer insights into the potential mechanisms through which neuromodulation may influence recovery and resilience in athletes [43][44].

2.6. The Expanding Horizons of BCI in Sports

Recent advancements in brain–computer interface (BCI) technology, particularly those utilising EEG signals, have significantly broadened the scope of neurofeedback applications beyond traditional mental and cognitive performance enhancement in sports. An exemplary demonstration of this technological evolution is highlighted by Pawuś and Paszkiel (2022). This study illustrates the sophisticated capabilities of EEG-based BCI systems, not only in interpreting cognitive states, but also in translating these states into actionable control commands for devices, such as wheelchairs, thus offering a new dimension to the practical applications of neurofeedback [45].
The integration of BCI technology in neurofeedback training (NFT) presents a unique opportunity to explore the multifaceted benefits of EEG beyond the realm of sports performance. By analysing EEG signals for power spectrum estimation and detecting specific patterns, such as nervous tics, BCI systems can provide real-time feedback and control mechanisms. This capability underscores the potential for EEG-based BCI to facilitate a deeper understanding of brain activity patterns associated with various cognitive states and motor intentions.
Incorporating BCI technology into the background of neurofeedback training emphasises the versatility of EEG as a tool for both performance enhancement and functional application. The success of BCI systems in accurately classifying EEG signals for practical purposes, such as wheelchair control, serves as a compelling example of how neurofeedback can extend beyond optimising mental skills in precision sports to include broader applications that enhance quality of life and functional independence.

This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/sports12030070


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