Children with Hemiplegia: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 2 by Nicole Yin and Version 1 by Rocio Palomo-Carrión.

EIt is una gran investigación conocer laa great research to know the importancia de aplicar terapias e of applying unimanuales con contención en el hogar en niños con h therapies with containment at home in children with hemiplegia.

  • Infantile hemiplegia, home, family, containment
  • Infantile hemiplegia
  • home
  • family
  • containment

1. Introducción

LInfa parálisisntile cerebral infantil (PIC) es una encefalopatía no palsy (ICP) is a non-progresiva quesive encephalopathy that produce uns a serie de trastornoss of permanentes que afectan el desarrollo disorders, affecting motor yand postural de los niñosevelopment in children[1]. [1].The Ldisease prevalencia de la enfermedad en los países desarrollados es de 2 a 2,5 casos poe in developed countries is 2–2.5 cases per 1000 nacidos vivolive births [1][1]. UOna de las formas más frecuentes de PIC es lae of the most frequently occurring forms of ICP is hemiplejía, en la que se ve afectado ungia, where one vertical del cuerpo, comobody side is affected, as a consecuencia del daño cerebral que afecta principalmente a unquence of brain damage that primarily affects one hemisferio [2]phere[2]. LMos movimientos en la extremidad superior afectados son más lentos y torpes y van acompañados de movimientos de espejo. Advements in the affected upper limb are slower and clumsy and accompanied by mirror movements. Moreovemásr, existen déthere are deficits en elin the selective control selectivo en los dedos de la mano afectadain the fingers of the affected hand.En consecuencia, hay unConsequently, there is a reducción en el uso de la mano afectada, probablemente conocida como “indiferencia del desarrollo”, quetion in the use of the affected hand, commonly known as “developmental disregard”, which interfiere con las actividades de la vidaeres with activities of daily living[3]. Childiaria [3]. Los con ren with hemiplegia no adquieren una experiencia de movimiento típico en la extremidad superior niños afectados, a diferencia de los adultos que han sufrido un derrame cerebral más adelante en su vida do not acquire a typical movement experience in their affected upper limb, unlike adults who have suffered a stroke later in their lifetime. PorThus, tanto, la terapia utilizada debe brindar la ohe therapy used must provide the opportunidad dety to experimentar con el lado afectado, otorgando la mayor función posible al miembro superior afectado [4] with the affected side, granting as much functionality as possible to the affected upper limb[4].

2. Tratamiento

La Consterapia de movimiento inducida por restricciones raint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) está diseñado para mejorar la función motora de la extremidad superior afectado después del accidente cerebrovascular y consta de tresis designed to improve the affected upper limb motor function after stroke, and consists of three key componentes claves: (1) entrenamiento repetitivoe, y unimanual task-orientado a ed tareas duraainte seis horasng for six consecutivas por día durante 10 a 12 díae hours per day during 10–12 days; (2) adhestrategias conductuales para mejorar la adherencia (paquete de rence-enhancing behavioral strategies (transferencia package); yand (3) restringir el uso del brazo menos afectado, generalmente usando un guante durante las horaconstraining the use of the less affected arm, usually by wearing a glove during waking hours de vigilia [11,12][6][7]. LasCIMT modificaciones del CIMT fueron propuestas portions were proposed by Page et al.[8][9] [13,14]utsilizando menos de tres horas no ng less than three non-consecutivas de terapia por día aplicando la contención del brazo no afectadoe hours of therapy per day applying the unaffected arm containment. EThestos estudios informaron de un mayor uso en el brazo afectado [13,14]e studies reported an increased use in the affected arm[8][9].

Las iIntervenciones con CIMT tions with modificadoed CIMT (mCIMT)[8][9] [13,14]at a una edad temprana podríann early age could expandir las redes neuronales primarias a través de la primary neural networks through the experiencia y práctica de su miembro superior afectado, ya que implica una práctica ee and practice of their affected upper limb, since it implies a structuradaed practice, demanda atención a la tarea y fomenta la práctica y uso dels attention to the task and encourages the practice and use of the affected segmento afectadot. AThusí, el entrenamiento y las tareas re, the training and repetitivas estarían dirigidas al tratamiento de niños a partir de los cuatro años, que tienen la capacidad de ejecutar la tarea durante períodos de tie tasks would be aimed at treating children from four years of age, who have the ability to execute the task for longer periods of timempo más prolongados [13][8].

ElThe mCIMT es eficaz parais effective at promover el uso functing the functional del miembro superior afectado en niños conuse of the affected upper limb in children with hemiplegia [15-18][10][11][12][13]. Differentes estudios en pacientes con ictus han demostrado que la studies in stroke patients have shown that mCIMT mejora el rendimiento en tareas como levantar una taza, agarrar una cuchara o sostener un libroimproves performance in tasks such as picking up a cup, grasping a spoon or holding a book[8][9][14][15]. [13,14,19,20].The Elhome entorno del hogar proporciona unvironment provides a rich natural contexto rico natural para to facilitar la te motivación, el compromiso y lation, engagement and repetición en lastion in functional actividades funcionales de la vida diaria [21, 22]ties of daily living[16][17]. UnaA técnica de "paquete de transferencia"“transfer package” technique facilita los beneficios del tratamiento en actividades del mundtes treatment gains into real, como el refuerzo de la adherencia al tratamiento y la aparición de nuevos comportamientos, mejorando así el uso espontáneo del miembro superior afectado entrenado en la hemiplejía infantil [23 , 24].P-world activities, such as reinforcement or lo tanto, mCIMT mejora la funcionalidad en la extremidad superior afectada mediante una práctica mejorada,

El uso d treatment adhere ncontención manual no afectado en mCIMT produciría mejoras en la función de la extremidad superior afectada en niños con hemiplejía (4-8 años) en comparación con el mismo protocolo sin contención (UTWC). La ce and the emergence of new behaviors, thereby improving the spontención de la mano no afectada podría reducir el "descuido o no uso del desarrollo", aumentar así el uso espontáneo y la calidad del movimiento en la extremidad superior afectada en niños conneous use of the trained affected upper limb in infantile hemiplegia[18][19]. Thus, mCIMT improves functionality in the affected upper through enhanced practice.

The use of unaffected manual containment in mCIMT would result in improvements in affected upper extremity function in children with hemiplegia (4-8 years) compared to the same protocol without containment (UTWC). Unaffected hand restraint may reduce "developmental neglect or nonuse," thereby increasing spontaneous use and quality of movement in the affected upper extremity in children with hemiplegia.

References

  1. Rosenbaum, P.; Paneth, N.; Leviton, A.; Goldstein, M.; Bax, M.; Damiano, D.; Dan, B.; Jacobsson, B. A report: The definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. Suppl. 2007, 109, 8–14.
  2. Bax, M.; Goldstein, M.; Rosenbaum, P.; Leviton, A.; Paneth, N.; Dan, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Damiano, D. Executive Committee for the Definition of Cerebral Palsy. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 2005, 47, 571–576.
  3. Huang, W.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Chien, C.L.; Kashima, H.; Lin, K.C. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a paradigm of translational research in neurorehabilitation: Reviews and prospects. Am. J. Transl. Res. 2010, 3, 48–60.
  4. Boyd, R.N.; Sakzewski, L.; Ziviani, J.; Abbott, D.F.; Badawy, R.; Gilmore, R.; Provan, K.; Tournier, J.D.; Al Macdonell, R.; Jackson, G.D. INCITE: A randomised trial comparing constraint induced movement therapy and bimanual training in children with congenital hemiplegia. BMC Neurol. 2010, 10, 4.
  5. Ferrel, C.; Bard, C.; Fleury, M. Coordination in childhood: Modifications of visuomotor representations in 6- to 11-year-old children. Exp. Brain Res. 2001, 138, 313–321.
  6. Mark, V.W.; Taub, E. Constraint-induced movement therapy for chronic stroke hemiparesis and other disabilities. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 2004, 22, 317–336.
  7. Morris, D.M.; Taub, E.; Mark, V.W. Constraint-induced movement therapy: Characterizing the intervention protocol. Eur. Medicophys. 2006, 42, 257.
  8. Page, S.J.; Sisto, S.; Johnston, M.V.; Levine, P. Modified constraint-induced therapy after subacute stroke: A preliminary study. Neurorehabil. Neural Repair 2002, 16, 290–295.
  9. Page, S.J.; Levine, P.; Leonard, A.C. Modified constraint-induced therapy in acute stroke: A randomized controlled pilot study. Neurorehabil. Neural Repair 2005, 19, 27–32.
  10. Charles, J.R.; Wolf, S.L.; Schneider, J.A.; Gordon, A.M. Efficacy of a child-friendly form of constraint-induced movement therapy in hemiplegic cerebral palsy: A randomized control trial. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 2006, 48, 635.
  11. Chen, C.L.; Kang, L.J.; Hong, W.H.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, H.C.; Wu, C.Y. Effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor control, motor performance and daily function in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled study. Clin. Rehabil. 2012, 27, 236–245.
  12. Chen, H.C.; Chen, C.L.; Kang, L.J.; Wu, C.Y.; Chen, F.C.; Hong, W.H. Improvement of upper extremity motor control and function after home-based constraint induced therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: Immediate and long-term effects. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2014, 95, 1423–1432.
  13. Choudhary, A.; Gulati, S.; Kabra, M.; Singh, U.P.; Sankhyan, N.; Pandey, R.M.; Kalra, V. Efficacy of modified constraint induced movement therapy in improving upper limb function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial. Brain Dev. 2013, 35, 870–876.
  14. Miltner, W.H.; Bauder, H.; Sommer, M.; Dettmers, C.; Taub, E. Effects of constraint-induced movement therapy on patients with chronic motor deficits after stroke: A replication. Stroke 1999, 30, 586–592.
  15. Brogårdh, C.; Sjölund, B.H. Constraint-induced movement therapy in patients with stroke: A pilot study on effects of small group training and of extended mitt use. Clin. Rehabil. 2006, 20, 218–227.
  16. Eliasson, A.C.; Krumlinde-sundholm, L.; Shaw, K.; Wang, C. Effects of constraint-induced movement therapy in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: An adapted model. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 2005, 47, 266–275.
  17. Novak, I.; Honan, I. Effectiveness of paediatric occupational therapy for children with disabilities: A systematic review. Aust. Occup. Ther. J. 2019, 66, 258–273.
  18. Taub, E.; Griffin, A.; Nick, J.; Gammons, K.; Uswatte, G.; Law, C.R. Pediatric CI therapy for stroke-induced hemiparesis in young children. Dev. Neurorehabil. 2007, 10, 3–18.
  19. Taub, E.; Griffin, A.; Uswatte, G.; Gammons, K.; Nick, J.; Law, C.R. Treatment of congenital hemiparesis with pediatric constraint-induced movement therapy. J. Child Neurol. 2011, 26, 1163–1173.
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