List of Research Stations in the Arctic: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 1 by Vivi Li and Version 2 by Vivi Li.

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in the Arctic. Also known as Arctic bases, polar stations or ice stations, these bases are widely distributed across the northern polar region of the earth. Historically few research stations have been permanent. Most of them were temporary, being abandoned after the completion of the project or owing to lack of funding to continue the research. Some of these were military or intelligence stations (listening posts) created as a result of the proximity of the U.S. and Soviet Union to each other's landmass across the polar region. Ice stations are constructed on land or on ice that rests on land, while others are drifting ice stations built on the sea ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.

  • polar region
  • arctic
  • polar

1. Research Stations

Station

name
Location Operating

country
Year

opened
Year

closed
Abisko Scientific Research Station Abisko, Sápmi Sweden 1903 Active
Adam Mickiewicz University Polar Station Petuniabukta, Svalbard, Norway Poland 2011 Active
Alomar Observatory[1] Andøya Space, Andøya, Svalbard Norway 1994 Active
Arctic Yellow River Station Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway China 2003 Active
AWIPEV Arctic Research Station Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway France

Germany
2003 Active
Barrow Observatory[2] Point Barrow, Alaska United States 1973 Active
Begichev Polar Station Maly Begichev Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Polar Station[3] Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island. Sakha Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Brønlundhus Peary Land, Greenland Denmark 1947 Transformed into a museum
Buor-Khaya Polar Station[4] Buor-Khaya Gulf, Sakha Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Canadian High Arctic Research Station[5] (CHARS) campus Cambridge Bay, Nunavut Canada TBA Active
Centrumsø Research Station Centrum Lake, Greenland Denmark 1954 Abandoned
Chelyuskin Polar Station[6] Cape Chelyuskin, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
1932 Active
Chetyrokhstolbovoy Polar Station[7] Medvezhyi Islands, Sakha Soviet Union

Russia
1933 Active
Churchill Northern Studies Centre[8] (CNSC) Churchill, Manitoba Canada 1976 Active
Czech Arctic Research Station Longyearbyen and Petuniabukta, Svalbard, Norway Czechia 2014 Active
Daneborg Wollaston Foreland, Greenland Denmark 1944 NA
Danmarkshavn Dove Bay, Greenland Denmark 1906 Active
Dirigibile Italia Arctic Station Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway Italy 1997 Active
Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory Alert, Nunavut Canada 1986 Active
Dye 3 Four different locations in southern Greenland United States 1971 1991
Ernst Krenkel Observatory Heiss Island, Arkhangelsk Oblast Soviet Union 1956 1980
Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station Devon Island, Nunavut Canada 2001 Active
Golomyanniy Island Polar Station[9][10] Sredniy Island, off Severnaya Zemlya Soviet Union

Russia
1954 NA
Heiberg Polar Station[11] Heiberg Islands, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
1940 1995
Himadri[12] Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway India 2008 Active
Igloolik Research Centre[13] Igloolik, Nunavut Canada 1975 Active
IndARC[14] Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway India 2014 Active
International Biological Station Lena-Nordenskiöld[15] Tiksi, Sakha Russia 1995 Active
Iqaluit Research Centre[16][17] Iqaluit, Nunavut Canada 1978 Active
Isachsen Station Ellef Ringnes Island, Nunavut Canada 1948 1978
Izluchin Polar Station Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Kevo Research Station[18] Kevo Finland 1958 Active
Kap Harald Moltke Peary Land, Greenland Denmark 1972 NA
Kigilyakh Research Station[19] Kigilyakh Peninsula, Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island, New Siberian Islands Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
Kilpisjärvi Biological Station[20][21] Kilpisjärvi Finland 1964 Active
Kiruna Observatory Kiruna Sweden NA NA
Kluane Lake Research Station[22] Kluane Lake, Yukon Canada 1961 Active
Koldewey Station Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway Germany 1991 Active, part of APIWEV station
Kolyuchin Polar Station Kolyuchin Island, Chukotka Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned in the 1990s
Labytnangi Ecological Research Station[23] Labytnangi, Yamalo-Nenets Soviet Union

Russia
1954 Active
Lavrentiya Research Station Lavrentiya, Chukotka Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
McGill Arctic Research Station[24] Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut Canada 1960 Active
Mestersvig Scoresby Land, Greenland Denmark 1956 Active
Mývatn Research Station Mývatn Iceland 1975 Active
NEEM Camp Northern Greenland ice sheet, Greenland Denmark 2008 2015
Netherlands Arctic Station, Univ Groningen[25] Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway Netherlands 1995 active
Nicolaus Copernicus University Polar Station Kaffiøyra, Svalbard, Norway Poland 1975 Active
Station Nord Princess Ingeborg Peninsula, Greenland Denmark 1952 Active
North Ice Northern Greenland ice sheet, Greenland United Kingdom 1952 1954
Northeast Science Station[26] Chersky, Sakha Soviet Union

Russia
1977 Active
Ny-Ålesund[27] Spitsbergen, Svalbard Norway 1967 Active
Peschanny Polar Station Cape Unslicht, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory[28][29] (PEARL) Eureka, Nunavut Canada 1993 Active
Polish Polar Station Hornsund, Svalbard, Norway Poland 1957 Active
Popov Polar Station[30] Bely Island, Yamalo-Nenets Soviet Union

Russia
November 1, 1933 March 2001
Preobrazheniya Polar Station Preobrazheniya Island, Sakha Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Prima Polar Station[31] Cape Baranov, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Soviet Union

Russia
NA Active
Provideniya Research Station Provideniya, Chukotka Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
Resolute Nunavut Station[32] Resolute, Nunavut Canada 1947 NA
Russky Island Arctic Station[33] Russky Island, Nordenskiöld Archipelago, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
1935 1999
Samoylov Station[34] Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve, Sakha Russia 1998 Active
Samuila Polar Station Samuila Island, Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Sermilik Station Ammassalik Island, Greenland Denmark 1970 Active
Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre[35] Sodankylä Finland NA NA
Solnechny Polar Station[36] Solnechny Bay, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Soviet Union

Russia
1952 Abandoned
Stanisław Baranowski Spitsbergen Polar Station Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard, Norway Poland 1971 Active
Stolbovoy Meteorological Station[37] Stolbovoy Island, Sakha Soviet Union

Russia
NA Abandoned
Summit Station Near summit of the Greenland ice sheet, Greenland United States April 1989 Active
Thule Research Station[38] Pituffik, Greenland Denmark 1995 Active
Toolik Field Station[39] Toolik Lake, Alaska United States 1975 Active
Troynoy Island Polar Station[40] Izvestiy TSIK Islands, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
1953 Active
Tuktoyaktuk Station[41] Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories Canada NA 1997
Tundra Ecosystem Research Station[42][43] (TERS) Daring Lake, Northwest Territories Canada 1994 Active
Tyrtov Island Polar Station Tyrtov Island, Nordenskiöld Archipelago, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union 1940 1975
Uedineniya Polar Station Uyedineniya Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
NA 1996
University of Copenhagen Arctic Station Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland Denmark 1906 Active
Ushakov Island Polar Station Ushakov Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union 1954 1980s
Vavilov Meteorological Station[44] October Revolution Island, Severnaya Zemlya Soviet Union 1974 1988
Vize Island Arctic Research Station Vize Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
November 1, 1945 NA
Ward Hunt Island Observatory Research Station[45] Ward Hunt Island, Nunavut Canada 1957 Active
Western Arctic Research Centre[46] Inuvik, Northwest Territories Canada[47] 1964 Active
Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik Research Complex[48] Whapmagoostui, Quebec Canada 1971 Active
White Sea Biological Station[49] (WSBS MSU) Chupa, Republic of Karelia Soviet Union

Russia
1938 Active
Willem Barents Biological Station[50] Meduza Bay, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
Wrangel Island Cape Blossom Station[51] Cape Blossom, Wrangel Island, Chukotka Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
Wrangel Island Ushakovskoye Station[52] Ushakovskoye, Wrangel Island, Chukotka Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
Yenisei Ecological Station[53] Mirnoye, Turukhansky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai Soviet Union

Russia
NA NA
Villum Research Station[54] Station Nord, North Greenland Denmark 1990 Active
Zackenberg Station Wollaston Foreland, Greenland Denmark 1997 Active
Zeppelin Zeppelinfjellet, Svalbard Norway 1990 Active

1.1. Drifting Ice Stations

Station name Head of the first shift Drift dates Drift coordinates Distance
Began Ended Start Finish Kilometres Miles
North Pole-1 I.D.Papanin May 21, 1937 February 19, 1938 89°25′N 78°40′W / 89.417°N 78.667°W / 89.417; -78.667 (North Pole-1 (start)) 70°40′N 19°16′W / 70.667°N 19.267°W / 70.667; -19.267 (North Pole-1 (finish)) 2,850 1,770
North Pole-2 M.M.Somov April 2, 1950 April 11, 1951 76°03′N 166°36′W / 76.05°N 166.6°W / 76.05; -166.6 (North Pole-2 (start)) 81°44′N 163°48′W / 81.733°N 163.8°W / 81.733; -163.8 (North Pole-2 (finish)) 2,600 1,600
North Pole-3 A.F.Trioshnikov April 4, 1954 April 20, 1955 85°58′N 175°00′W / 85.967°N 175°W / 85.967; -175 (North Pole-3 (start)) 86°00′N 24°00′W / 86°N 24°W / 86; -24 (North Pole-3 (finish)) 1,865 1,159
North Pole-4 E.I.Tolstikov April 8, 1954 April 19, 1957 75°48′N 178°25′W / 75.8°N 178.417°W / 75.8; -178.417 (North Pole-4 (start)) 85°52′N 00°00′W / 85.867°N -0°E / 85.867; -0 (North Pole-4 (finish)) 6,970 4,330
North Pole-5 N.A.Volkov April 21, 1955 October 8, 1956 82°10′N 156°51′E / 82.167°N 156.85°E / 82.167; 156.85 (North Pole-5 (start)) 84°18′N 63°20′E / 84.3°N 63.333°E / 84.3; 63.333 (North Pole-5 (finish)) 3,630 2,260
North Pole-6 K.A.Sychev April 19, 1956 September 14, 1959 74°24′N 177°04′W / 74.4°N 177.067°W / 74.4; -177.067 (North Pole-6 (start)) 82°06′N 03°56′E / 82.1°N 3.933°E / 82.1; 3.933 (North Pole-6 (finish)) 8,650 5,370
North Pole-7 V.A.Vedernikov April 23, 1957 April 11, 1959 82°06′N 164°11′W / 82.1°N 164.183°W / 82.1; -164.183 (North Pole-7 (start)) 85°14′N 33°03′W / 85.233°N 33.05°W / 85.233; -33.05 (North Pole-7 (finish)) 3,520 2,190
North Pole-8 V.M.Rogachyov April 27, 1959 March 19, 1962 76°11′N 164°24′W / 76.183°N 164.4°W / 76.183; -164.4 (North Pole-8 (start)) 83°15′N 132°30′W / 83.25°N 132.5°W / 83.25; -132.5 (North Pole-8 (finish)) 6,090 3,780
North Pole-9 V.A.Shamontyev April 26, 1960 March 28, 1961 77°23′N 163°00′E / 77.383°N 163°E / 77.383; 163 (North Pole-9 (start)) 86°36′N 76°00′W / 86.6°N 76°W / 86.6; -76 (North Pole-9 (finish)) 2,660 1,650
North Pole-10 N.A.Kornilov October 17, 1961 April 29, 1964 75°27′N 177°10′E / 75.45°N 177.167°E / 75.45; 177.167 (North Pole-10 (start)) 88°32′N 90°30′E / 88.533°N 90.5°E / 88.533; 90.5 (North Pole-10 (finish)) 3,960 2,460
North Pole-11 N.N.Bryazgin April 16, 1962 April 20, 1963 77°10′N 165°58′W / 77.167°N 165.967°W / 77.167; -165.967 (North Pole-11 (start)) 81°10′N 139°34′W / 81.167°N 139.567°W / 81.167; -139.567 (North Pole-11 (finish)) 2,400 1,500
North Pole-12 L.N.Belyakov April 30, 1963 April 25, 1965 76°50′N 165°34′W / 76.833°N 165.567°W / 76.833; -165.567 (North Pole-12 (start)) 81°06′N 145°47′W / 81.1°N 145.783°W / 81.1; -145.783 (North Pole-12 (finish)) 1,595 991
North Pole-13 A.Ya. Buzuyev April 22, 1964 April 20, 1967 73°55′N 161°19′W / 73.917°N 161.317°W / 73.917; -161.317 (North Pole-13 (start)) 87°55′N 03°32′E / 87.917°N 3.533°E / 87.917; 3.533 (North Pole-13 (finish)) 3,545 2,203
North Pole-14 Yu. B.Konstantinov May 1, 1965 February 12, 1966 72°42′N 175°25′W / 72.7°N 175.417°W / 72.7; -175.417 (North Pole-14 (start)) 76°59′N 154°49′E / 76.983°N 154.817°E / 76.983; 154.817 (North Pole-14 (finish)) 1,040 650
North Pole-15 V.V.Panov April 15, 1966 March 25, 1968 78°49′N 168°08′E / 78.817°N 168.133°E / 78.817; 168.133 (North Pole-15 (start)) 85°45′N 10°30′W / 85.75°N 10.5°W / 85.75; -10.5 (North Pole-15 (finish)) 2,330 1,450
North Pole-16 Yu. B.Konstantinov April 10, 1968 March 22, 1972 75°31′N 172°00′W / 75.517°N 172°W / 75.517; -172 (North Pole-16 (start)) 86°00′N 85°27′W / 86°N 85.45°W / 86; -85.45 (North Pole-16 (finish)) 5,850 3,640
North Pole-17 N.I.Blinov April 18, 1968 October 16, 1969 80°30′N 165°26′E / 80.5°N 165.433°E / 80.5; 165.433 (North Pole-17 (start)) 86°48′N 25°20′E / 86.8°N 25.333°E / 86.8; 25.333 (North Pole-17 (finish)) 1,750 1,090
North Pole-18 N.N.Ovchinnikov October 9, 1969 October 24, 1971 75°10′N 165°02′W / 75.167°N 165.033°W / 75.167; -165.033 (North Pole-18 (start)) 86°06′N 153°51′E / 86.1°N 153.85°E / 86.1; 153.85 (North Pole-18 (finish)) 5,240 3,260
North Pole-19 A.N.Chilingarov November 7, 1969 April 16, 1973 74°54′N 160°13′E / 74.9°N 160.217°E / 74.9; 160.217 (North Pole-19 (start)) 83°08′N 16°17′E / 83.133°N 16.283°E / 83.133; 16.283 (North Pole 19- (finish)) 6,705 4,166
North Pole-20 Yu. P.Tikhonov April 22, 1970 May 17, 1972 75°56′N 175°22′E / 75.933°N 175.367°E / 75.933; 175.367 (North Pole-20 (start)) 81°44′N 166°47′W / 81.733°N 166.783°W / 81.733; -166.783 (North Pole-20 (finish)) 3,780 2,350
North Pole-21 G.I.Kizino April 30, 1972 May 17, 1974 74°06′N 178°15′E / 74.1°N 178.25°E / 74.1; 178.25 (North Pole-21 (start)) 86°16′N 143°35′E / 86.267°N 143.583°E / 86.267; 143.583 (North Pole-21 (finish)) 3,605 2,240
North Pole-22 V.G.Moroz September 13, 1973 April 8, 1982 76°16′N 168°31′W / 76.267°N 168.517°W / 76.267; -168.517 (North Pole-22 (start)) 86°10′N 00°00′W / 86.167°N -0°E / 86.167; -0 (North Pole-22 (finish)) 17,069 10,606
North Pole-23 V.M.Piguzov December 5, 1975 November 1, 1978 73°51′N 178°25′W / 73.85°N 178.417°W / 73.85; -178.417 (North Pole-23 (start)) 87°40′N 22°31′W / 87.667°N 22.517°W / 87.667; -22.517 (North Pole-23 (finish)) 5,786 3,595
North Pole-24 I.K.Popov June 23, 1978 November 19, 1980 76°45′N 163°00′E / 76.75°N 163°E / 76.75; 163 (North Pole-24 (start)) 86°03′N 29°40′E / 86.05°N 29.667°E / 86.05; 29.667 (North Pole-24 (finish)) 5,652 3,512
North Pole-25 V.S.Sidorov May 16, 1981 April 20, 1984 75°01′N 168°35′E / 75.017°N 168.583°E / 75.017; 168.583 (North Pole-25 (start)) 85°50′N 122°15′W / 85.833°N 122.25°W / 85.833; -122.25 (North Pole-25 (finish)) 5,754 3,575
North Pole-26 V.S.Sidorov May 21, 1983 April 9, 1986 78°30′N 174°46′E / 78.5°N 174.767°E / 78.5; 174.767 (North Pole-26 (start)) 82°46′N 170°31′W / 82.767°N 170.517°W / 82.767; -170.517 (North Pole-26 (finish)) 5,380 3,340
North Pole-27 Yu. P.Tikhonov June 2, 1984 May 20, 1987 78°31′N 160°30′E / 78.517°N 160.5°E / 78.517; 160.5 (North Pole-27 (start)) 86°28′N 09°02′W / 86.467°N 9.033°W / 86.467; -9.033 (North Pole-27(finish)) 5,655 3,514
North Pole-28 A.F.Chernyshov May 21, 1986 January 23, 1989 80°40′N 168°29′E / 80.667°N 168.483°E / 80.667; 168.483 (North Pole-28 (start)) 79°40′N 03°09′E / 79.667°N 3.15°E / 79.667; 3.15 (North Pole-28 (finish)) 7,634 4,744
North Pole-29 V.V.Lukin June 10, 1987 August 19, 1988 80°22.8′N 112°59′E / 80.38°N 112.983°E / 80.38; 112.983 (North Pole-29 (start)) 84°42.8′N 56°34.3′W / 84.7133°N 56.5717°W / 84.7133; -56.5717 (North Pole-29 (finish)) 2,686 1,669
North Pole-30 V.M.Piguzov October 9, 1987 April 4, 1991 74°18′N 171°24′W / 74.3°N 171.4°W / 74.3; -171.4 (North Pole-30 (start)) 82°31′N 126°26′W / 82.517°N 126.433°W / 82.517; -126.433 (North Pole-30 (finish)) 7,675 4,769
North Pole-31 V.S.Sidorov October 22, 1988 July 25, 1991 76°35′N 153°10′W / 76.583°N 153.167°W / 76.583; -153.167 (North Pole-31 (finish)) 73°33′N 161°04′W / 73.55°N 161.067°W / 73.55; -161.067 (North Pole-31 (finish)) 5,475 3,402
North Pole-32 V.S.Koshelev April 25, 2003 March 6, 2004 87°52.5′N 148°03′E / 87.875°N 148.05°E / 87.875; 148.05 (North Pole-32 (start)) 84°41′N 03°33′W / 84.683°N 3.55°W / 84.683; -3.55 (North Pole-32 (finish)) 2,418 1,502
North Pole-33 A.A.Vishnevsky September 9, 2004 October 5, 2005 85°05′N 156°31′E / 85.083°N 156.517°E / 85.083; 156.517 (North Pole-33 (start)) 86°14′N 95°54′E / 86.233°N 95.9°E / 86.233; 95.9 (North Pole-33 (finish)) 3,156 1,961
North Pole-34 T.V.Petrovsky September 19, 2005 May 25, 2006 85°39′N 115°19′E / 85.65°N 115.317°E / 85.65; 115.317 (North Pole-34 (start)) 87°26′N 07°39′E / 87.433°N 7.65°E / 87.433; 7.65 (North Pole-34 (finish)) 2,032 1,263
North Pole-35 Vladimir Chupun[55] September 21, 2007 July 22, 2008 81°30′N 103°54′E / 81.5°N 103.9°E / 81.5; 103.9 (North Pole-35 (start)) 81°00′N 31°18′E / 81°N 31.3°E / 81; 31.3 (North Pole-35 (finish)) 3,614 2,246
North Pole-36 Yuri Katrayev September 7, 2008 August 24, 2009 82°32′N 144°56′E / 82.533°N 144.933°E / 82.533; 144.933 (North Pole-36 (start)) 85°53′N 26°41′W / 85.883°N 26.683°W / 85.883; -26.683 (North Pole-36 (finish)) 2,905 1,805
North Pole-37 Sergey Lesenkov September 7, 2009 May 31, 2010 81°28′N 164°35′W / 81.467°N 164.583°W / 81.467; -164.583 (North Pole-37 (start)) 80°04′N 140°40′W / 80.067°N 140.667°W / 80.067; -140.667 (North Pole-37 (finish)) 2,076 1,290
North Pole-38 Tomash Petrovskiy October 14, 2010 September 20, 2011 76°07′N 176°32′W / 76.117°N 176.533°W / 76.117; -176.533 (North Pole-38 (start)) 83°53′N 154°18′W / 83.883°N 154.3°W / 83.883; -154.3 (North Pole-38 (finish)) 3,024 1,879
North Pole-39 Alexander Ipatov October 2, 2011 September 15, 2012 84°10′N 148°49′W / 84.167°N 148.817°W / 84.167; -148.817 (North Pole-39 (start)) 83°57′N 96°44′W / 83.95°N 96.733°W / 83.95; -96.733 (North Pole-39 (finish)) 1,885 1,171
North Pole-40 Nikolai Fomichev October 1, 2012 June 7, 2013 85°21′N 142°53′W / 85.35°N 142.883°W / 85.35; -142.883 (North Pole-40 (start)) 82°25′N 130°25′W / 82.417°N 130.417°W / 82.417; -130.417 (North Pole-40 (finish)) 1,736 1,079
North Pole-2015 Dmitrij Mamadaliev April 11, 2015 August 9, 2015 89°34′N 17°08′W / 89.567°N 17.133°W / 89.567; -17.133 (North Pole-2015 (start)) 86°15′N 07°52′W / 86.25°N 7.867°W / 86.25; -7.867 (North Pole-2015 (finish)) 714 444
Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC Expedition) Markus Rex October 4, 2019 July 30, 2020 85°00′N 137°00′E / 85°N 137°E / 85; 137 (MOSAiC (start))[56] N/A 1,700 1,100
  • Fletcher's Ice Island, US (1952 - 1978)

2. In Fiction

  • Ice Station Zebra (novel), by Alistair MacLean
    • Ice Station Zebra (1968 film)
    • Ice Station Zebra a song by Jack White on Boarding House Reach
  • Ice Station, by Matthew Reilly
  • Ice Station -- Impossible!, an episode of The Venture Bros.
  • Ice Station Santa, an episode of Sam & Max Beyond Time and Space

3. Gallery

References

  1. Alomar Observatory https://www.andoyaspace.no/alomar-observatory/
  2. Barrow Observatory - NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/brw/
  3. Soviets gather geographic data in Arctic - CIA https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP80-00809A000700240034-6.pdf
  4. Deserted Buor-Khaya Polar Station http://www.ec-arctic.ru/eng/photos/view_photo.php3?id=629,section=15,page=11
  5. Welcome to the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Campus https://www.canada.ca/en/polar-knowledge/CHARScampus.html
  6. On northernmost tip of Eurasian mainland, a showoff of Northern Fleet capacity; Navy vessels put ashore a group of Arctic soldiers at Cape Chelyuskin, 77° North, by Atle Staalesen, The Barents Observer https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/security/2017/09/northernmost-tip-eurasian-mainland-showoff-northern-fleet-capacity
  7. История полярных арктических станций с 30-х годов XX века (History of polar arctic stations from the 1930s in the XX century) http://www.arktika-antarktida.ru/arktikast2.shtml
  8. Churchill Northern Studies Centre https://churchillscience.ca/
  9. Golomyanniy Station in Severnaya Zemlya http://ultima0thule.blogspot.com/2016/02/golomyanniy-station-in-severnaya-zemlya.html
  10. Книга: Два года на северной земле http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/1014681/Urvancev_-_Dva_goda_na_severnoy_zemle.html
  11. "ДИКСОН — СНЕЖНОЙ АРКТИКИ СТОЛИЦА. К 90-ЛЕТИЮ НАЧАЛА НАБЛЮДЕНИЙ НА о. ДИКСОН". http://www.sevmeteo.ru/articles/4/137.shtml. 
  12. Stensdal, Iselin (2013). "Asian Arctic Research 2005-2012". Fridtjof Nansen Institute. http://www.fni.no/doc&pdf/FNI-R0313.pdf. 
  13. Igloolik Research Centre, Igloolik, Igloolik Island, NU http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpe/links_researchers/research/publications/stations/igloolik/igloolik.htm
  14. India Deploys its First Sub-Surface Ocean Moored Observatory in the Arctic http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=107789
  15. International Biological Station (IBS) “Lena-Nordenskiold”, Lena River Delta https://www.yakutiatravel.com/tag/lena-bio-station
  16. Iqaluit Research Centre http://cnnro.ca/iqaluit-research-centre/
  17. Iqaluit Research Centre, Nunavut Arctic College (Nunavut Research Institute) http://cnnro.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Iqaluit-Research-Centre.pdf
  18. "Kevo Research Station - Turun yliopisto". https://www.utu.fi/en/units/cerut/kevo/station/Pages/home.aspx. 
  19. "Kigilyakh". Mapcarta. https://mapcarta.com/16389928. 
  20. Kilpisjärvi Biological Station http://www.helsinki.fi/kilpis/english/station/start.htm
  21. University of Helsinki - Kilpisjärvi Biological Station http://www.helsinki.fi/kilpis/english/
  22. Kluane Lake Research Station https://klrs.ca/
  23. Labytnangi Ecological Research Station http://www.uran.ru/sites/default/files/pictures/press18.pdf
  24. McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS) https://www.mcgill.ca/mars/
  25. http://www.arcticstation.nl/[1]
  26. BBC news report http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6246926.stm
  27. UK Arctic Research Station https://eu-interact.org/field-sites/uk-arctic-research-station/
  28. Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory http://cnnro.ca/polar-environment-atmospheric-research-laboratory-pearl/
  29. Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory, PEARL http://www.candac.ca/candac/Facilities/facility.php?type=PEARL
  30. Popov Polar Station http://www.neespi.org/web-content/meetings/Fairbanks_2006/Gruzinov.pdf
  31. Фотогалерея: 2004 - "Полярное Кольцо" - Местонахождение: 17 мая, Северная Земля, о.Большевик, м.Баранова, п/ст Примах http://www.ec-arctic.ru/photos/view_photo.php3?id=1159,section=20
  32. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM) https://can-ndc.nrcan.gc.ca/index-en.php
  33. F. Romanenko, O. Shilovtseva. Russian-Soviet polar stations and their role in the Arctic Seas exploration. Moscow State University, Geography Department, 1998 https://web.archive.org/web/20040703235935/http://vitiaz.ru/congress/en/thesis/98.html
  34. Samoylov Station https://www.awi.de/en/expedition/stations/island-samoylov.html
  35. FMI ARC http://fmiarc.fmi.fi/
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  37. Северный морской путь оснащается современными приборами навигации http://www.korabel.ru/news/comments/severniy_morskoy_put_osnashchaetsya_sovremennimi_priborami_navigatsii.html
  38. Thule Research Station https://www.isaaffik.org/thule-research-station-technical-university-denmark
  39. Toolik Field Station https://toolik.alaska.edu/
  40. Luhn, Alec; Hunt, Elle (14 September 2016). "Besieged Russian Scientists Drive Away Polar Bears". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/14/russian-scientists-trapped-arctic-polar-bears-month-wait-rescue. 
  41. Tuktoyaktuk, N.W.T. http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpl/links_researchers/research/publications/stations/tuktoy/tuktoy.htm
  42. Tundra Ecosystem Research Station http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/en/services/research-and-data/tundra-ecosystem-research-station
  43. "Tundra Ecosystem Research Station (TERS)". http://www.eu-interact.org/en/field-sites/canada-10/western-arctic-research-centre-warc/. 
  44. Bassford, Robin; Siegert, Martin; Dowdeswell, Julian; Oerlemans, Johannes; Glazovsky, Andrey; Macheret, Yuri (February 2006). "Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap". Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research (university of Colorado) 38 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2006)038[0001:QTMBOI2.0.CO;2]. http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/phys/2007-0530-200530/UUindex.html. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  45. Ward Hunt Island Observatory Research Station; Centre d’études nordiques (CEN)/ Centre for Northern Studies http://cnnro.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Ward-Hunt-Island-Observatory-Research-Station-.pdf
  46. Western Arctic Research Centre http://cnnro.ca/western-arctic-research-centre/
  47. "Western Arctic Research Centre (WARC)". http://www.eu-interact.org/en/field-sites/canada-10/western-arctic-research-centre-warc/. 
  48. CEN Whapmagoostui-Kuujuarapik Research Station https://eu-interact.org/field-sites/cen-whapmagoostui-kuujuarapik-research-station/
  49. White Sea Biological Station (WSBS MSU) http://en.wsbs-msu.ru/
  50. Willem Barents Biological Station https://eu-interact.org/field-sites/willem-barents-biological-station/
  51. State Nature Reserve “Wrangel Island http://eng.ostrovwrangelya.org/
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  53. Enisei Ecological Station “Mirnoe” http://www.sevin.ru/menues1/index_eng.html?../stations_eng/mirnoe_lab.html
  54. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Sustainable Cities and Military Installations: Climate Change Impact on Energy and Environmental Security. Conference paper 177-98. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7161-1_10.>
  55. Скалина, Ирина (10 July 2008). "Опасный дрейф; Полярников эвакуируют на судне "Михаил Сомов"" (web). Российская газета. http://www.rg.ru/2008/07/10/reg-pomorskij/SP-35.html.  (Russian/English) Skalina, Irina (July 10, 2008). "A dangerous drift; Polarnik evacuated on the ship "Mikhail Somov"" (web). Google Translation. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=http://www.rg.ru/2008/07/10/reg-pomorskij/SP-35.html&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%25D0%25A1%25D0%25B5%25D0%25B2%25D0%25B5%25D1%2580%25D0%25BD%25D1%258B%25D0%25B9%2B%25D0%25BF%25D0%25BE%25D0%25BB%25D1%258E%25D1%2581%2B35%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26hs%3DGBI%26sa%3DG. 
  56. https://directory.eoportal.org/web/eoportal/satellite-missions/m/mosaic
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