Occupational Safety and Health Management System Standards: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 1 by Panagiotis K. Marhavilas and Version 2 by Amina Yu.

Occupational accidents present a momentous effect on human well-being and, in addition, create large costs in any country’s social health/insurance system. Moreover, the topic of “safety and health” (OSH, OS&H) or “health and safety” (OHS, OH&S) concerning labor (or occupational work) is one of the most significant issues in any corporation. OSHMS systems were developed as a consequence of a plethora of several and severe industrial accidents throughout the decades of the 1970s and 1980s (for example, the Flixborough accident in 1974, the Seveso incident in 1976, and the Piper Alpha disaster in 1987). Thorough examinations of these events revealed insufficiencies in the dominant techniques for the regulation and the management of OSH and determined the necessity to use approaches that methodically address both engineering and educational action. The proliferation of OSH management systems, which have been used worldwide since the 1990s, has dramatically increased the concentration of performance measurement methods, tools, and techniques.

  • international standards
  • occupational safety and health (OSH)
  • safety management system (SMS)
  • occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS)

1. Introduction

A safety management system (SMS) SMS system constitutes a methodology through which each organization or business (either public or private and commercial or industrial) directs its inner processes in order to attain its goals, which are related to a plethora of miscellaneous issues (involving service and/or product quality, environmental performance, operational capability, safety and health (OSH)OSH in the workplace and so on, etc.). The intensity of the system’s intricacy in any organization will depend on its particular context. In small organizations, there is not any requisite for wide-ranging documentation due to the fact that the employees know plainly how to contribute to the accomplishment of the organization’s overall goals. Furthermore, the operation of more complicated enterprises may necessitate analytical documentation in order to perform their organizational aims. Furthermore, IMS standards facilitate organizations to improve their performance by determining repeatable actions that organizations consciously put into action in order to achieve their goals (objectives) and to create a fixed organizational culture that automatically engages in a continual cycle of self-evaluation, modification, improvement, and adjustment of processes and operations via sharp employee consciousness and management commitment, guidance, and leadership [1].
An Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS)HMS system constitutes a mingling of the planning and review, managerial regulations, consultative adjustments, and the essentials of a specific program, which collaborate together in a consolidated way to ameliorate the performance of OSH [2][27].
Below, we present an outline of the most significant international OSHMS standards will be presented bbased on specific information from various sources.

2.  Outline of OSHMS Standards

2.1. BS 8800

This system was developed in 1996 by the British Standards Institution (BSI) and called BS 8800:1996, while in 2004 and 2008, there were two revisions, the BS 8800:2004 and BS 18004:2008, respectively. It provides directions for OSHMS systems to support conformity with the denoted OSH policies and aims and discusses how OSH could be incorporated within an organization’s whole management system [3][28]. Additionally, it was updated to take into consideration new law-making alterations as well as the latest Health and Safety Commission (HSC) and Health and Safety Executive (HSE) actions and to give noteworthy guidance on critical areas such as risk management and assessment. In addition, the revision of BS:8800 mirrors national and international OSH topics that have emerged since its publication in 1996, a fact that directed the publication of OHSAS18001, OHSAS18002, and the ILO-OSH 2001-Guidelines, which are related to OSHMS systems [4][29].
What is more, the BS18004:2008 SMS examines the OSH requisitions in a working environment and gives practical advice for accomplishing correct safety measures. Moreover, it helps management to reveal commitment and fine practice and also ensures certain compliance by all parties via technical documents. This SMS standard also supports organizations in achieving correct requirements whenever they try to implement an OSHMS with an exterior party. The implementation of BS18004 SMS is appropriate for any organization (as far as its type and size is concerned), and on the other hand, it is principally handy for personnel dealing with the OSH on both operational and strategic levels [5][30].

2.2. HSG 65

This standard was produced (in 1991) by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), constituting a handy guide for managers, OSH health professionals, directors, and employee representatives who aim to improve the situation of OSH in their organizations [6][31]. Later on, it was revised in 1997 and 2013. It is worth noting that the HSE moved away from applying the POPMAR (Policy, Organizing, Planning, Measuring performance, Auditing, and Review) methodology (or model) concerning the management of safety and health, moving to a new approach with the name PDCA (Plan–Do–Check–Act). The PDCA approach (or framework) attains a specific stability between the system and its behavioral features of management. It also commonly utilizes the management of safety and health as an undivided part of good management rather than as a separate system [7][32].

2.3. OHSAS 18001

This concrete standard (and its companion, OHSAS 18002, with the appellation “Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS 18001”) was developed with the assistance of forty-four (44) cooperating organizations (constituting the Project Group of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS)) in response to customer mandates for a distinguishable OSHMS standard in association with their management systems that could be assessed and certified. The first edition (i.e., OHSAS 18001:1999) was technically revised and replaced by the second edition (i.e., OHSAS 18001:2007) in 2007. Its second edition was generated due to the providences of the standards ISO 9001:2000 (quality standard), ISO14001:2004 (environmental standard), ILO-OSH (safety and health standard), and miscellaneous OSHMS standards (or publications) to intensify the compatibility of these in order to (a) enlarge the benefits for the users and (b) to ease the assimilation of several attributes in OSHMS systems regarding the quality, environmental features, and OSH by organizations that wished to do so. Furthermore, this standard is also based on the PDCA methodology, which could be concisely outlined with the subsequent: (i) “Plan”: establish the objectives and procedures required to achieve the results in conformity with the organization’s OSH policy; (ii) “Do”: properly implement the processes; (iii) “Check”: monitor and measure the processes in the frame of OSH-policy, goals, laws, and other requirements and also report the results; and (iv) “Act”: take action to persistently make OSH’s performance better [8][3].

2.4. ILO-OSH 2001

Since its foundation in 1919, the ILO (International Labour Organization) has utilized and adopted numerous international work (labor) conventions and treaties (along with supplementary recommendations) concerning OSH aspects, and, additionally, various technical publications and codes of practice for a variety of OSH issues. These ILO-OSH Guidelines (the first edition was produced in 2001, and the second one was published in 2009) were derived by the actions of a broad base that included the ILO (with its triple composition of “governments–employers–workers”) and additional stakeholders. In addition, they are modulated by internationally established principles of OSH as set out in many international labor standards. Thus, they offer an outstanding and dominant tool for the growth of a sustainable safety culture inside businesses. The practical recommendations of the above-referred guidelines are proposed for usage by all those who are responsible for OSHMS. They are not officially or lawfully obligatory and are not aimed to be a substitute for national regulations and/or laws or alternative conventional standards. Of course, OSH protocols conforming with ILO-OSH’s requisitions compatible with national legislation, regulations, and rules are the liability and obligation of the employer. The employer must show forceful leadership and dedication to OSH actions within the organization and make proper adjustments for establishing an efficient OSHMS system, which ought to enclose the key fundamentals of (a) organizing, planning, implementing, and evaluating the actions for improvement and (b) of the OSH policy [9][33].

2.5. AS/NZS 4801–2001

This standard is a united “Australian & New Zealand Std” and was derived by the “Joint Technical Committee SF-001” (in November 2001) in order to supersede or amalgamate the previously existing standards: (i) AS 4801:2000 “Occupational health and safety management systems—Specification with guidance for use” and (ii) NZS 4801(Int):1999 “Occupational health and safety management systems—Specification with guidance for use”. Its aim is to establish auditable criteria for an OSHMS system, and, on the other hand, aims to comprise the most excellent elements of such SMS that are already broadly used in New Zealand and Australia. It involves proper guidance for the way that those criteria could be realized. Moreover, it should not be depended upon to guarantee conformity with all lawful and other commitments; for instance, the fulfillment of this standard might inevitably not meet legitimate OSH obligations. Regarding the organizations that desire to develop, implement, improve, and audit an OSHMS system, a couple of combined and supplementary standards are accessible to provide essential guidance. Furthermore, the version of AS/NZS 4804:2001 with the title “Occupational health and safety management systems—General guidelines on principles, systems and supporting techniques” is the principal standard that is pertinent to every organization and offers broad guidance on how to develop, implement, improve, and audit an OSHMS system. The version AS/NZS 4801 creates an audit structure mainly for use by third party organizations that have been asked by a body to conduct an irrespective audit on its OSHMS. Furthermore, the framework could be used as a basis (or standard) for evaluation, assessment, or comparison throughout internal auditing processes. The AS/NZS 4804 standard provides broad guidance (i) on how to establish (or set up) an OSHMS system; (ii) on how to accomplish continual improvement in an OSHMS system; and (iii) about the resources needed to establish and perpetually improve an OSHMS. The instructions included in AS/NZS 4804 depict a methodical management approach that can aid in fulfilling legitimate requisitions and can lead to persistent improvement in OSH performance.
The overall aim of these linked frameworks (i.e., AS/NZS 4801 and AS/NZS 4804) is to assist in the accomplishment of the greatest OSH performance via methodical reduction and/or the abolishment of risks. Furthermore, the AS/NZS 4801 and AS/NZS 4804 guidelines are aimed to reserve the essential fundamentals of an efficient OSHMS for organization that can be combined with various management requirements in order to help organizations to attain a high-level OSH as well as other financial and social objectives. These standards are not intended to be utilized for generating trade barriers, nor for modifying the legal commitments of an organization. They are noncompulsory (voluntary) and valuable tools for businesses, whereas governments can use them as little as (or as much as) they wish [10][34].

2.6. ANSI/AIHA Z10–2005

This standard was developed in 2005 (and revised in 2012) by the “American National Standardization Institute” (ANSI) in collaboration with the “American Industrial Hygiene Association” (AIHA). It is a voluntary and non-mandatory standard that was generated and is used in the USA [11][35]. It has the goal of assisting organizations to diminish the risk of occupational harm, damage, illness, and death as a major focal point. Some of the foremost features that determine Z10 comprise focus on effectual employee participation, management leadership roles, and design examination and alteration. It constitutes a helpful tool for organizations to improve OSH performance. The implementation of Z10 concentrates on organizations (i) fulfilling their OSHMS policies, (ii) assisting in benchmark safety processes and practices, and (iii) specifying areas where hazard prevention and control are required.
Z10 is grounded in the P–D–C–A SMS model and can be included in businesses with other previously existing standards, such as ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001, and/or ISO 14001. All of these standards are well-matched and effortlessly joined with one another, which allows for audits to be realized concurrently in most occasions [12][36].

2.7. SS 506

This Singapore Standard for OSH was developed in 2004 (as SS 506:2004) by the Singapore Standards Council (SSC) and was revised in 2009 (as SS 506:2009). It consists of three separate parts: (a) general requirements, (b) implementation guidelines, and (c) specific requirements for the chemical industry. The first component is the adoption of OHSAS 18001:2007, whereas the second one consists of the adoption of OHSAS 18002:2009. This standard is attuned with ISO 9001:2000 (quality standard) and ISO 14001:2004 (environmental standard) SMS systems, a fact that could make the combination (or amalgamation) of QMS, EMS, and OSH SMS systems by organizations easier, and it was indeed decided that they should be combined. In addition, it is compatible with the ILO-OSH:2001 standard of the International Labour Organization (ILO). This standard determines requisites for an OSHMS system to facilitate any organization to build up and put into action policy and objectives that take into consideration legitimate requisitions and information related to OSH risks. Additionally, it can be applied to all categories and magnitudes of organizations and to contain various cultural, geographical, and social conditions. The achievement of this SMS depends on dedication from all levels and functions of the business, and particularly from the uppermost management. The overall goal of SS 506 (Part I and II) is to maintain and endorse fine OSH practices in equilibrium with socio-economic necessities [13][14][37,38].

2.8. Une 81900:1996 EX

Shortly after the publication of the BS 8800 Guide, the “Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación” (AENOR), i.e., the Spanish Association for Standardization and Certification, published the standard UNE 81900: 1996 EX, with the designation “Prevention of Occupational Risks—General rules for implementation of an Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS)”, in June 1996 (withdrawn in 2002), which emerged on a trial basis for a period of three years in order to know the point of view of organizations when applying management principles that were new and delicate. As such, AENOR chose several organizations in the chemical, construction, and metal–mechanic sectors and was able to verify the favorable reception that this initiative had. The standard was proposed by AENOR in order to be adopted as a European standard (CEN), but it was discarded by the EU countries, principally because it is a standard that is for only certification purposes.
The UNE 81900 family was constituted by the following standards: (i) UNE 81900–1996 EX, with the title “Prevention of Occupational Hazards. Rules for the implementation of an SGPRL (AENOR:1996)”, (ii) UNE 81901–1996 EX, with the designation “Prevention of Occupational Hazards. General Rules for the Evaluation of SGPRLs”, (iii) UNE 81902-1996 EX, with the title “Prevention of Occupational Hazards. Vocabulary (AENOR:1996)”, (iv) BUNE 81903-1997 EX, with the title “Prevention of Occupational Hazards. General Rules for the Evaluation of an SGPRL. Criteria for the qualification of the Auditors of Prevention (AENOR:1997)”, (v) UNE 81904-1997 EX, with the designation “Prevention of Occupational Hazards. General Rules for the Evaluation of SGPRLs. Management of audit programs (AENOR:1997)”, and (vi) UNE 81905-1997 EX, with the title “Prevention of Occupational Hazards. Guide for the implementation of an SGPRL (AENOR:1997)”.
In view of the above, several reasons justify the possible choice of UNE 81900: 1996 EX by an organization, especially of Spanish scope: (a) It is an effective tool to prevent occupational hazards and to consequently reduce accidents in the workplace. (b) Its implementation facilitates the identification of regulatory requirements and compliance with obligations established in the Law on the Prevention of Occupational Risks and its regulatory development. It therefore covered in its day the vacancy that existed at the time of its publication regarding specific Spanish norms in the management for the prevention of occupational hazards. (c) It is a useful tool for integrating management systems thanks to clear relationships with quality management and environmental management.
The rule is mainly characterized by its imperative nature, using the expression “should”, which makes it especially auditable [1][15][1,39].

2.9. Uni 10616

This standard, which has the designation “Major Hazard process plants—Safety management for the operation—Fundamental criteria for the implementation”, and its supplement Uni 10617, which also has the title “Major Hazard process plants—Safety management for the systems—Essential requirements”, were developed in 1997 (and withdrawn in 2012) by the Italian Standardization Authority UNI for relevant accident prevention. Some of the major qualifying points of the new UNI 10616-2012 are those described below: (a) The adoption of intrinsic safety principles, such as the substitution of hazardous substances with other, less dangerous substances; the reduction of the quantities present; and modifications of the equipment, of the materials, or of the process conditions; (b) the adoption of risk matrices or charts for evaluating risk acceptability (or tolerability); (c) circumscription of inspection actions and periodical checks of critical lines and equipment based on risk analysis based on RBI (Risk-Based Inspection); (d) the consideration of the external domino upshot between adjacent plants due to explosions, fires, projections of fragments of containers, and the release of flammable and/or toxic substances in order to define the essential prevention and shielding measures; (e) the adoption of a work permission system in order to reduce and to minimize the risks associated with verification, inspection, maintenance, construction, and/or activities of assembling/dismantling parts/components within a plant in operation; (f) the selection of providers of services and goods such as enterprises, builders, and consortia based on consolidated and documented special experience; and (g) affiliating processes for periodical internal auditing with inner or external auditors with specific requirements of competence, impartiality, and objectivity; knowledge of applicable procedures; and confidentiality [1][16][1,40].

2.10. GOST 12.0.230-2007

This Russian standard with the title “Occupational safety standards system—Occupational safety and health management systems—General requirements” (name in English: GOST 12.0.230-2007, name in Russian: ГОСТ 12.0.230-2007) is based on the ILO—OSH 2001 guidelines, and its purpose is to support and safeguard workers from vulnerability to harmful, dangerous, and injurious production factors and the eradication of accidents involving fatalities, casualties, and occupational illnesses. At the national level, this SMS is used (i) to set up the national fundamentals and essentials of the protection of an OSHMS system assisted by national rules, conventions, and other regulative legitimate actions; (ii) guidance about the application of non-mandatory (voluntary or volitional) OSH protection actions in organizations focusing on conformity with patterns (or norms) and several regulatory lawful activities leading to the consecutive improvement of OSH protection actions; and (iii) guidance about the growth of national and specific commercial standards on OSHMS systems to guarantee the high quality of the workable requirements of organizations in line with the features of activities and their extent.
At the organism or business level, GOST 12.0.230-2007 is aimed at (i) yielding guidelines regarding the essentials of integration in an OSHMS concerning any enterprise as an undivided part of an ordinary policy and SMS system and (ii) boosting the resuscitation of all employees in the organization, involving owners, employers, employees, management personnel, and also their representatives in order to use contemporary (or modern) concepts and methodologies of OSH protection management intended for the continual improvement of OSH protection actions (see Russian Gost, 2007, https://www.russiangost.com/p-20799-gost-120230-2007.aspx (accessed on 7 October 2022).

2.11. ISO 14000 Family—Environmental Management

As referred to above, the IMS standards concerning OSH on worksites are aimed to make the fundamentals of a successful OSHMS in an organization available that could then be combined with supplementary management requirements (for example quality and/or environmental). Hence, the majority of OSHMSs were created to be pursuant QMS and EMS SMS standards in order to help the merging of those QMS, EMS, and OSH management systems in each organization. The ISO 14000 group of standards was created by the ISO Technical Committee (i.e., ISO/TC) and its miscellaneous subcommittees and provides useful tools for businesses and organizations of all types, with the intention to manage their environmental accountabilities. In particular, ISO 14001:2015 and its several supplementary standards (such as ISO 14006:2011) focus on environmental systems to attain these accountabilities [17][41]. The rest of the standards in the family are focused on explicit activities, such as communications, life cycle analysis, audits, labeling, and environmental challenges (for instance, climate change). Furthermore, ISO 14001:2015 establishes appropriate criteria for an efficient EMS as well as its certification. It illustrates an outline that an enterprise (or organization) can follow to develop an efficient EMS system, and it can be utilized by every organization independent of its activity or occupational sector ([18][42]; source: https://www.iso.org/the -iso-survey.html (accessed on 7 October 2022).

2.12. ISO 45001

In 2018, the ISO body developed a new standard, ISO 45001, with the title “Occupational health and safety management systems—Requirements”, which supports organizations to diminish the impact of occupational injuries and diseases by creating a well-organized framework to ameliorate employees’ OSH, lessen worksite risks, and create safer and healthier working conditions everywhere in the world. This SMS standard was evolved by a committee and synthesized by various OSH experts and follows a variety of broad SMS principles (for example, ISO 14001 and ISO 9001). It takes into consideration additional SMS standards such as OHSAS 18001, the ILO-OSH guidelines, a variety of national standards and conventions, and so onetc.
ISO 45001 is intended to be applied by any enterprise or organization regardless of its size and/or the category of its occupational sector and can be combined with miscellaneous OSH programs (for instance, worker well-being and wellness). It can help each organization to realize its legitimate necessities and requisitions ([19][43]; https://www.iso.org/iso-45001-occupational-health-and-safety.html (accessed on 7 October 2022).
Throughout the last four decades, the usage of OSHMS has become a significant and common feature of the worksites of enterprises in the economies of the developed countries.
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