Soling: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 2 by Camila Xu and Version 4 by Camila Xu.

The Soling is an International open keelboat class designed by Jan Linge from Norway in 1965. In 1968, it was selected to be an Olympic class for the Games of the XX Olympiad in Kiel 1972 (GER). The Soling maintained this status until her final appearance at the 2000 Olympics. The Soling is a strong boat designed for any wind and sea condition. The boats are one-design originating from an authorized single plug and mould and made of glass reinforced polyester, making competition as equal as possible. The lifetime of a Soling is long. Those produced in the early days are still in competition (more than 50 years after being built). At the 2019 North American Championship the 5th place was taken by a German team (GER 1) sailing a refurbished Soling build in 1968.[fn 3] Characteristic for the Soling is the droop-hiking technique.[fn 4] Since 2008, the Soling is one of the Vintage Yachting Classes at the Vintage Yachting Games.

  • keelboat
  • soling
  • yachting

1. History

Soling

The Soling history actually began in the mind of Jan Linge during the late 1950s while he was doing design work and tank testing on a 5.5 metre to be built for a Norwegian friend for sailing in the 1960 Olympics. This friend, Finn Ferner, was a successful businessman and an outstanding helmsman, an Olympic medalist and winner of many international events. Linge had become convinced that a slightly smaller boat with a detached spade rudder and short keel could be a fast seaworthy boat with the likelihood of great popularity – though such features were not allowed under the 5.5 rules. After 1960 Linge completed his design sketches to demonstrate his ideas for promoting a Norwegian national class.

By the time of the 1961 IYRU meetings, the forces for change had organized themselves to seek four new classes – a single hander as companion to the Finn, a two-man keelboat to complement the Star, a three-man keelboat like the 5.5 or Dragon, finally a catamaran. The underlying goals for these new boats were not explicit, but hinted: "high performance" and "popularity" were key words for whatever boat was chosen. The two-man keelboat process started in 1962 under the auspices of the Dutch sailing magazine De Waterkampioen with the announcement of the design competition, to culminate at the 1963 IYRU meetings, and Trials perhaps in 1965. This resulted in the Tempest.

It was the public announcement by the Class Policy Committee (CPOC) in mid-1963 that started events leading to the adoption of the Soling's Olympic status four years later. The American magazine Yachting undertook to accept design sketches for presentation at the November 1963 meeting with the aim of a compromise between maximum speed and maximum seaworthiness. Obligatory maximum limits and features were:

  • LWL: 22 feet (6.7m)
  • Draft 4'6 (1.37m)
  • Displacement 3799 pounds (1723 kg)
  • Sail area 310 sq. ft. (28.8m2)
  • Non-sinkable
  • Built-in buoyancy
  • Capable of racing in open sea conditions
  • Open cabin

Linge was determined to develop his version of a three-man keelboat. His next door neighbour, Sverre Olsen (See S.O. + LING) became interested in backing the effort. A wooden prototype was built, for experimenting with sizes and placement of rudders, keels, and rig. Finn Ferner, the champion skipper and Linge's 5.5 client of 1960, became an important skilled partner in this activity. By mid 1965, Linge and Ferner were satisfied enough with their work to manufacture the moulds needed for producing complete fibreglass boats. In November 1965, the IYRU scheduled trials to be held off Kiel during September 1966.

The high performance revolution was underway: The Tempest was given recognition, Catamaran trials were set for 1967, and a 1966 re-run of the single hander event which had had no wind in 1965 was held. During the winter of 1965–66, five fibreglass Solings were built which were extensively sailed against one another during the following summer. This competition was destined to be helpful in the heavy weather ahead at Kiel – chosen as a windy challenge for what the IYRU desired.

The first race was in moderate air, but thereafter for ten of the eleven races, Kiel lived up to its breezy reputation. The final race may have been worth all the rest for the Soling: a meeting of helmsmen gathered in view of the forty knot wind. Not surprisingly, the Committee's desire to race was persuasive. By the windward mark only the Soling was left to sail the course, and so was able to demonstrate her outstanding ability to handle heavy air. The Selection Committee, consisting of chairman British Frank Murdoch, Italian Beppe Croce, American Bob Bavier, Greek Costas Stavridis, British Sir Gordon Smith and German Hans Lubinus was impressed.

Two boats were recommended: Shillalah II, designed and sailed by US Star class Champion, E. W. "Skip" Etchells, and Soling, the boat referred to as "the undersized entry". Several new boats, a fibreglass Shillalah, also a 5.5 and a Dragon to compare speeds, assembled in Travemünde for the second Trials – this time in what became a moderate air series. Again Shillalah was the big winner, but again Soling finished respectably. This time she was sailed by Per Spilling with Sven Olsen and Linge again as crew. Without comment, the Observation Committee recommended Soling alone; this result passed unanimously through the IYRU meetings. The Soling had become an international class.

The 1968 Games in Mexico were held before the class acquired its Olympic status. Because there was a five-class limit set by the International Olympic Committee, the CPOC had recommended 5.5, Soling, Tempest (its two new boats), FD and Finn – these at the cost of Dragon and Star for the 1972 Olympics. The Permanent Committee was heavily lobbied by Dragon enthusiasts and so dumped the 5.5; in the same process the Star owners forced abandonment of IYRU's Tempest. In April 1969, after this battle, the IOC relieved the pressure on the IYRU by allowing a sixth "event". The IYRU then added the Tempest.

The news of the trials' results not only assured the Soling's status, but stimulated a building spree: three hundred in 1968 and as many or more in 1969. Elvstrøm became the dominant builder in Europe, particularly after he won the first Soling World Championships off Copenhagen in 1969. One of the best American helmsman, George O'Day, was given a license to build for the US market, just as Bill Abbott Sr. (Chief) acquired the Canadian market.

2. Present Day

The International Soling Class is still very active. Yearly world, continental and many national championships are organized and well visited. Fleetsracing with more than 40 competing boats are no exception. Local club racing is also very popular in the Soling. Boston, Massachusetts, maintains one of the largest active Soling racing clubs, with competitive racing every week through summer and fall.

Soling in Boston Harbor, sailing through Hypocrite Channel

3. Events

3.1. Olympics

|- 

| style="align:center;" | 1972 Kiel

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|United States (USA)

Harry Melges

William Allen

William Bentsen |style="vertical-align:top;"|Sweden (SWE)

Stig Wennerström

Bo Knape

Stefan Krook |style="vertical-align:top;"|Canada (CAN)

David Miller

Paul Côté

John Ekels
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 1976 Montreal

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|Denmark (DEN)

Poul Richard Høj Jensen

Valdemar Bandolowski

Erik Hansen |style="vertical-align:top;"|United States (USA)

John Kolius

Walter Glasgow

Richard Hoepfner |style="vertical-align:top;"|East Germany (GDR)

Dieter Below

Olaf Engelhardt

Michael Zachries
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 1980 Moscow

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|Denmark (DEN)

Poul Richard Høj Jensen

Valdemar Bandolowski

Erik Hansen |style="vertical-align:top;"|Soviet Union (URS)

Boris Budnikov

Alexandr Budnikov

Nikolay Poliakov |style="vertical-align:top;"|Greece (GRE)

Anastasios Bountouris

Anastasios Gavrilis

Aristidis Rapanakis
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 1984 Los Angeles

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|United States (USA)

Robbie Haines

Rod Davis

Ed Trevalyan |style="vertical-align:top;"|Brazil (BRA)

Torben Grael

Daniel Adler

Ronaldo Senfft |style="vertical-align:top;"|Canada (CAN)

Hans Fogh

Stephen Calder

John Kerr
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 1988 Seoul

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|East Germany (GDR)

Jochen Schümann

Thomas Flach

Bernd Jäkel |style="vertical-align:top;"|United States (USA)

John Kostecki

William Baylis

Robert Billingham |style="vertical-align:top;"|Denmark (DEN)

Jesper Bank

Jan Mathiasen

Steen Secher
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 1992 Barcelona

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|Denmark (DEN)

Jesper Bank

Steen Secher

Jesper Seier |style="vertical-align:top;"|United States (USA)

Kevin Mahaney

Jim Brady

Doug Kern |style="vertical-align:top;"|Great Britain (GBR)

Lawrie Smith

Robert Cruikshank

Ossie Stewart
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 1996 Atlanta

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|Germany (GER)

Jochen Schümann

Thomas Flach

Bernd Jäkel |style="vertical-align:top;"|Russia (RUS)

Georgy Shayduko

Dmitri Shabanov

Igor Skalin |style="vertical-align:top;"|United States (USA)

Jeff Madrigali

Jim Barton

Kent Massey
 |- 

| style="align:center;" | 2000 Sydney

details

 |style="vertical-align:top;"|Denmark (DEN)

Jesper Bank

Henrik Blakskjær

Thomas Jacobsen |style="vertical-align:top;"|Germany (GER)

Jochen Schümann

Gunnar Bahr

Ingo Borkowski |style="vertical-align:top;"|Norway (NOR)

Herman Horn Johannessen

Paul Davis

Espen Stokkeland

|-

! style="text-align:left;" colspan=4|Reference:[1] 

|- |}

3.2. Pan American Games

|- |1979 San Juan |United States (US) |Brazil (BL) |Canada (KC) |- |1983 Caracas |Brazil (BL) |Canada (KC) |United States (US) |- |1987 Indianapolis |United States (US) |Canada (KC) |Brazil (BL) |-

! style="text-align:left;" colspan=4|Reference:[2] 

|- |}

3.3. World Champions

Fleet racing[3]

Match racing (Infanta Cristina)

|- |1995 Kingston |United Kingdom (GBR)

Stuart Childerley |Norway (NOR)

Herman Horn Johannessen

Paul Davis

Espen Stokkeland |Denmark (DEN)

Stig Westergaard

Jens Bojsen Møller

Bjørn Westergaard |- |1996 Cadiz |Sweden (SWE)

Magnus Holmberg

Björn Alm

Johan Barne |Denmark (DEN)

Stig Westergaard

Jens Bojsen-Møller

Bjørn Westergaard |France (DEN)

Marc Bouet |- |1998 Kralingen |Germany (GER)

Jochen Schümann

Gunnar Bahr

Ingo Borkowski |Norway (NOR)

Herman Horn Johannessen

Paul Davis

Espen Stokkeland |Australia (AUS)

Neville Wittey |- |1999 Melbourne |Sweden (SWE)

Hans Wallen

M. Augustsson

Johan Barne |United States (USA)

Jeff Madrigali

Jim Hartwell

Chris Healy |Netherlands (NED)

Roy Heiner

Peter Van Niekerk

Dirk de Ridder |- |2000 Cadiz |Denmark (DEN)

Jesper Bank

Henrik Blakskjær

Thomas Jacobsen |France (FRA)

Philippe Presti |United Kingdom (GBR)

Andy Beadsworth

Barry Parkin

Mason |-

! style="text-align:left;" colspan=4|Reference:[4] 

|- |}

3.4. Continental Championships[5]

European Fleetrace Champions[6]

European Matchrace Championship[7]

|- |31 May - 2 June 1993 Kralingen |Norway (NOR)

Herman Horn Johannessen

Paul Davis

Espen Stokkeland |Input needed |Input needed |- |1994 | | | |- |1995 Torbay |United Kingdom (GBR)

Andy Beadsworth |Norway (NOR)

Herman Horn Johannessen

Paul Davis

Espen Stokkeland |United Kingdom (GBR)

Stuart Childerley |- |1996 | | | |- |1997 St. Gilgen |Germany (GER)

Jochen Schümann

Gunnar Bahr

Ingo Borkowski |Ukraine (UKR)

Sergey Pichuguin

Dmitriy Yarovoy

Sergey Timokhov |Norway (NOR)

Herman Horn Johannessen

Paul Davis

Espen Stokkeland |- |1998 Torbole |Germany (GER)

Jochen Schümann

Gunnar Bahr

Ingo Borkowski |Spain (ESP)

Luis Doreste

Domingo Manrique

David Vera |Ukraine (UKR)

Sergey Pichuguin

Volodimir Korotkov

Sergey Timokhov |- |1999 | | | |- |2000 | | | |}

North American Championship[8],[9]

South American Championship[7]

3.5. Vintage Yachting Games

|- |2008 Medemblik

 | Netherlands (NED)

Rudy den Outer

Leo Determan

Ronald den Arend |20px Wildcard (NCO)

Steven Bakker

Sven Koster

Joost Houweling | Germany (GER)

Holger Weichert

Laurent Scheel

Martin Setzkorn

|- |2012 Lake Como

 | Ukraine (UKR)

Igor Yushko

Sergiy Pichugin

Dmitriy Yarmolenka | Netherlands (NED)

Rudy den Outer

Gavin Lidlow

Ramzi Souli | Austria (AUT)

Peter Neumann

Rudolf Rager

Rudolf Hubauer

|- |2018 Copenhagen

 | Netherlands (NED)

Rudy den Outer

Theo de Lange

Gabor Helmhout | Canada (CAN)

Peter W. Hall

Johan Offermans (NED)

Gord de Vries | Ukraine (UKR)

Igor Yushko

Sergiy Pichugin

Sergiy Ivansits

|- |}

4. Class Association

The International Soling Association, ISA, was founded as soon as the Soling became an International class in 1967. Originally an "Owners Club" became a very self-supporting organization who provided great support for the whole Soling community and guarded the Soling one-design during her Olympic tour of duty as well as in the present time.[10]

References

  1. "Sailing: Olympic Games: Soling". http://sports123.com/sai/oo-sol.html. 
  2. "Sailing: Pan American Games: Soling (open)". Archived from the original on 18 February 2005. https://web.archive.org/web/20050218123504/http://sports123.com/sai/opa-sol.html. 
  3. World champions fleet racing http://sports123.com/sai/ow-sol.html
  4. World Champions Match racing http://www2.sailing.org/isafcal/calsearch.asp
  5. Continental Champions http://www2.sailing.org/isafcal/calsearch.asp
  6. Sports 123: Sailing: European Championships: Soling http://sports123.com/sai/oe-sol.html
  7. "ISA – International Soling Class -" http://www.soling.com/indexmore.asp?Seccion=Events&Evento=Search
  8. Sports 123: Sailing: North American Championships: Soling http://sports123.com/sai/ona-sol.html
  9. http://soling.com
  10. ISA http://www.soling.com/indexmore.asp?Seccion=General%20Information&Evento=Comite&Lengua=English
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