Application of Emulsion Gels as Fat Replacement: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 1 by Yuqing Ren and Version 4 by Sirius Huang.

Although traditional meat products are highly popular with consumers, the high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol present significant health concerns. However, simply using plant oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids to replace animal fat in meat products causes a decline in product quality, such as lower levels of juiciness and hardness. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a fat substitute that can ensure the sensory quality of the product while reducing its fat content. Consequently, using emulsion gels to produce structured oils or introducing functional ingredients has attracted substantial attention for replacing the fat in meat products.虽然传统肉制品深受消费者的欢迎,但高水平的不饱和脂肪酸和胆固醇带来了严重的健康问题。简单地使用富含不饱和脂肪酸的植物油来代替肉制品中的动物脂肪会导致产品质量下降,例如降低多汁性和硬度水平。因此,有必要开发一种脂肪替代品,既能保证产品的感官质量,又能降低其脂肪含量。因此,使用乳化凝胶生产结构化油或引入功能性成分在替代肉制品中的脂肪方面引起了人们的极大关注。

  • emulsion gel
  • fat substitute
  • healthier meat products
  • reduced fat

1. Introduction

Fat-rich meat products are popular with consumers due to their sensory properties. Fat is closely related to several food characteristics, such as texture, taste, and appearance. It also acts as a structuring and tasting agent, supplies energy, serves as a carrier [1][2][3], and directly affects the quality of food consumption and consumer satisfaction. Although traditional meat products are important sources of high-value animal protein [4], the majority of the animal fat is rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, and excessive intake increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease, raising the concern for human health [5].
Frankfurters, bologna sausage, beef patties, and other popular meat products typically contain 20–30% fat [6]. The WHO recommends an SFA level of 10% of the total fat intake and that the dietary fat consumption should account for 15% to 30% of the total dietary energy [7]. Although most consumers have the perception of reducing fat and cholesterol intake, which reduces the sales of high-fat foods, it is not feasible to sacrifice the product quality to reduce the fat content of the food [8]. Furthermore, considering global environmental challenges, public health problems, sustainable development, and animal welfare issue [9], while ensuring that the food quality is not lower than the acceptable range for consumers, reducing the amount of animal fat in food and developing fat-free and low-fat food has become an urgent problem to be solved. Fat reduction can be achieved by incorporating fat substitutes in meat products.
Adding fat substitutes to meat products to improve the fatty acid proportions can benefit consumer health. Adding fat substitutes can reduce the fat content in meat products and enhance the distribution of fatty acids. Since the fatty acid composition and proportion significantly impact human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to SFA ratio should be between 0.4 and 1.0. Furthermore, because unsaturated fatty acids also have substantial health implications, it is recommended that the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio not exceed 4. A high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio can promote the incidence of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and other disorders. Some meat, such as pork, presents suboptimal fatty acid ratios [7][10].
Using plant oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids to replace animal fat abundant in SFAs is currently attracting significant research attention. However, simply using plant oils to replace animal fats causes a decline in product quality, since animal fats display a solid, elastic structure at room temperature absent in liquid oils. The adipose tissue in meat products consists of liquid oil and solid fat in the connective tissue network, exhibiting both plastic and elastic properties. Animal fat particles play a critical role in the cooking loss rate, hardness, texture, juiciness, flavor, and appearance of meat products [11]. Therefore, liquid plant oil must be treated to resemble animal adipose tissue, reducing the fat content while preserving the original sensory properties of the product as much as possible [12].
Recent studies have focused on utilizing emulsion gels to substitute the animal fat in meat products, forming a network structure via carbohydrate or protein cross-linking, which acted as a matrix for structural fat simulation. Emulsion gel formation is considered a strategy for oil stabilization and structuring, presenting advantages such as transporting functional components and improving the sensory and physical product properties. Since emulsion gels are highly suitable for developing healthy meat products, many studies are currently examining their application prospects. 最近的研究集中在利用乳化凝胶来替代肉制品中的动物脂肪,通过碳水化合物或蛋白质交联形成网络结构,其充当结构脂肪模拟的基质。乳液凝胶形成被认为是一种油稳定和结构化的策略,具有诸如运输功能成分和改善感官和物理产品性能等优点。由于乳液凝胶非常适合开发健康的肉制品,因此许多研究目前正在研究其应用前景。
Emulsion gels with soft, solid textures are more suitable for developing as fat substitutes than traditional emulsions without gel formation. They can better mimic the physical properties of animal fats like pork backfat, such as hardness and water retention capacity.  Since these emulsions are more suitable for transporting and protecting oxidized lipids in food具有柔软,固体质地的乳液凝胶比没有凝胶形成的传统乳液更适合作为脂肪替代品进行开发。它们可以更好地模仿动物脂肪的物理特性,如猪肉背膘,如硬度和保水能力。由于这些乳液更适合运输和保护食品中的氧化脂质[13] and are more successful in preserving flavor substances and bioactive compounds, they can be used to improve the nutritional characteristics of meat products.并且在保存风味物质和生物活性化合物方面更为成功,它们可用于改善肉制品的营养特性。
A variety of formulations, proteins, polysaccharides, and low-molecular-weight compounds can be used as emulsion gel matrices多种配方、蛋白质、多糖和低分子量化合物可用作乳液凝胶基质[14]. These polymer molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces (e.g., hydrogen bonding, electrostatic forces, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions), while covalent bonds (disulfide bonds) are also involved in the heat-induced gelation of globular protein gels这些聚合物分子通过弱分子间力(例如,氢键,静电力,范德华力和疏水相互作用)保持在一起,而共价键(二硫键)也参与球状蛋白质凝胶的热诱导凝胶化[15]. Emulsion gel preparation usually involves the production of a protein-stabilized emulsion, which may also be supplemented with a hydrocolloid stabilizer or other ingredients (proteins, polysaccharides, and surfactants) after emulsion formation乳液凝胶制备通常涉及生产蛋白质稳定的乳液,其也可以在乳液形成后补充水胶体稳定剂或其他成分(蛋白质,多糖和表面活性剂)[16]. Proteins and polysaccharides are often used as gelation agents in emulsion gels used as fat substitutes, which are broadly classified as protein-, polysaccharide-, and protein–polysaccharide composite-based emulsion gels, depending on the matrix. 蛋白质和多糖通常用作用作脂肪替代品的乳液凝胶中的凝胶剂,根据基质的不同,它们被广泛分为蛋白质,多糖和蛋白质多糖复合基乳液凝胶。

2. Protein-Based Emulsion Gels乳液凝胶的制备

2.1. The Gelation Mechanism and Influencing Factors凝胶化机理及影响因素

Proteins contain many functional groups that can be covalently cross-linked and are ideal for emulsion gel formation蛋白质含有许多官能团,这些官能团可以共价交联,是乳液凝胶形成的理想选择。[17].Combining different types of proteins may result in emulsion gels with different properties and expanding their applications in food products结合不同类型的蛋白质可能会产生具有不同性质的乳液凝胶,并扩大其在食品中的应用[18]. Emulsion-filled protein gels contain proteins that can both stabilize the emulsions as emulsifiers and form network structures as gelation agents乳液填充的蛋白质凝胶含有既可以稳定乳液作为乳化剂又可以形成作为凝胶剂的网络结构的蛋白质[19].The most important concerns during the preparation of protein-based emulsion gels are their rheological properties and network structures, the gelation properties of which are mainly determined by the protein characteristics and concentrations, the oil droplet content, and the heating temperature and time在制备蛋白质基乳液凝胶过程中,最重要的问题是它们的流变特性和网络结构,其凝胶化特性主要由蛋白质特性和浓度、油滴含量以及加热温度和时间决定。[19],以及其他因素,如 as well as other factors, such as pH, ionic strength, and gelation temperaturepH、离子强度和凝胶化温度[20].
The protein-based emulsion gels used in meat products frequently contain soy proteins and sodium caseinate (肉制品中使用的蛋白质基乳液凝胶由于其高营养价值和乳化、增稠和凝胶化特性,经常含有大豆蛋白和酪蛋白酸钠(SC) due to their high nutritional value and emulsification, thickening, and gelation properties[21][22]. Soybean protein provides surfactant molecules, reduces the interfacial tension between oil and water, and enhances the stability of emulsion gels大豆蛋白提供表面活性剂分子,降低油和水之间的界面张力,增强乳胶的稳定性[23]. 研究表明,大豆分离蛋白(Studies have shown that soybean protein isolate (SPI) can be employed to produce emulsion gels with excellent freezing-thawing stability and rheological properties using NaClPI)可用于生产具有出色冻融稳定性和流变学性能的乳液凝胶。[24] increasing their potential as fat substitutes. However, compared with polysaccharide and protein–polysaccharide composite,增加它们作为脂肪替代品的潜力。然而,与多糖和蛋白质-based emulsion gels, it seems more difficult to produce emulsion gels with a certain hardness and gel strength using proteins. Marie-Christin Baune et al.多糖复合基乳液凝胶相比,使用蛋白质生产具有一定硬度和凝胶强度的乳液凝胶似乎更加困难。玛丽-克里斯汀·鲍恩等人[25] hypothesized that a higher internal phase (oil) content (above 假设较高的内相(油)含量(高于50%) and protein concentration could increase the rigidity and viscoelasticity of emulsion gels. They attempted to identify a commercial separating protein from soy , pea, or potato suitable for preparing pH-neutral (6.5) and heat-resistant (72 ◦C) emulsion gels for use as solid animal fat substitutes. The experiments indicated that both the interfacial and protein–protein interactions of leguminous proteins were involved in structural reinforcement, while the hardness increased with the cysteine content, and the interactions displayed electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic properties. Leguminous proteins seem to hold more promise for preparing stable, solid animal fat substitutes suitable for long-term storage than potato proteins.)和蛋白质浓度可以增加乳液凝胶的刚性和粘弹性。他们试图从大豆,豌豆或马铃薯中鉴定出一种商业分离蛋白质,适用于制备pH中性(6.5)和耐热(72°C)乳液凝胶,用作固体动物脂肪替代品。实验表明,豆科蛋白质的界面间和蛋白质-蛋白质相互作用均参与结构增强,而硬度随半胱氨酸含量的增加而增加,并且相互作用表现出静电,疏水和亲水性质。豆科蛋白质似乎比马铃薯蛋白质更有望制备适合长期储存的稳定,固体动物脂肪替代品。

2.2. Protein-Based Emulsion Gels as Fat Substitutes in Meat Products蛋白质基乳液凝胶作为肉制品的脂肪替代品

Reducing the fat content and improving the fatty acid profile降低脂肪含量,改善脂肪酸含量
Several studies have examined the addition of protein-based emulsion gels to meat products as fat substitutes. Pintado et al.几项研究已经检查了在肉制品中添加蛋白质乳液凝胶作为脂肪替代品。平塔多等人[26]used olive oil and chia oil as raw materials to structurally prepare oleogels, while 以橄榄油和奇亚油为原料,在结构上制备油凝胶,同时加入SPI and gelation agents (gelatin) were added to prepare emulsion gels. Oleogels are a type of organogels, which can be defined as a three-dimensional cooling network structure with thermally reversible properties formed by an organic liquid and organogelators. When the organic phase of an organogel is edible oil, it is called an oleogel. Unlike emulsion gels, which are formed by making the continuous phase gelation, oleogels are liquid oils that are transformed to a gel state by organogelators, such as beeswax, which consist mainly of oil and have a much higher oil content than emulsion gels和凝胶剂(明胶)制备乳液凝胶。有机凝胶是一种有机凝胶,可以定义为由有机液体和有机凝胶剂形成的具有热可逆性质的三维冷却网络结构。当有机凝胶的有机相是食用油时,它被称为油凝胶。与通过连续相凝胶形成乳液凝胶不同,油凝胶是由有机凝胶剂转化为凝胶状态的液体油,例如蜂蜡,其主要由油组成,并且具有比乳液凝胶高得多的油含量[27][28]. In this study , both gels were used as 在这项研究中,两种凝胶都被用作脂肪替代品,并评估了它们对替代功能性发酵肉制品(fat substitutes, and their suitability for replacing functional fermented meat product (fuet) was evaluated. The results indicated that fat substitution improved the fatty acid composition of the products, with a 12-fold decrease in the unsaturated fatty acid n-6/n-3 ratio compared to the control samples with normal fat content and reduced fat content (more water), while the products exhibited an excellent oxidative and microbial status during a 30-d frozen storage period. Therefore, both the emulsion gel and oleogel could be used as meat product fat substitutes.uet)的适用性。结果表明,脂肪置换改善了产物的脂肪酸组成,与脂肪含量正常且脂肪含量降低(含水量较多)的对照样品相比,不饱和脂肪酸n-6/n-3比值降低了12倍,而在30 d冷冻储存期间,产品表现出优异的氧化和微生物状态。因此,乳液凝胶和油凝胶都可以用作肉制品脂肪替代品。
Various studies have explored the gelation mechanism of protein-based emulsion gels and new gel preparation methods to obtain fat substitutes with physical, chemical, and sensory properties similar to real animal fats. Dreher et al.各种研究探索了蛋白质乳液凝胶的凝胶化机理和新的凝胶制备方法,以获得与真实动物脂肪相似的物理,化学和感官特性的脂肪替代品。德雷尔等人[11] suggested that a certain amount of solid fat could increase the similarity of the key properties of fat mimetics derived from plant materials to animal adipose tissue. Melted solid-state hydrogenated canola oil was mixed with liquid canola oil and added to a solution containing an excess of hot emulsified 研究表明,一定量的固体脂肪可以增加来自植物材料的脂肪模拟物与动物脂肪组织的关键特性的相似性。将熔化的固态氢化菜籽油与液体菜籽油混合,加入到含有过量热乳化SPI的溶液中,该SPI, which was covalently cross-linked using TG to produce a protein network. The internal solid fat was allowed to crystallize to form additional networks, ultimately resulting in an integral emulsion gel with melting and elastic properties. The results indicated that the emulsification of a lipid crystal network consisting of liquid plant oil and solid plant-derived fat with excess plant proteins produced different structures via TG-induced cross-linking. Furthermore, plant-derived lipids could be engineered to create fat crystal networks that mimic the mechanical properties of animal fats via sequential melting, emulsification, cooling, and cross-linking.使用TG共价交联以产生蛋白质网络。允许内部固体脂肪结晶以形成额外的网络,最终产生具有熔融和弹性特性的集成乳液凝胶。结果表明,由液态植物油和固体植物衍生脂肪组成的脂质晶体网络的乳化与过量的植物蛋白通过TG诱导的交联产生不同的结构。此外,植物来源的脂质可以被设计成通过顺序熔化,乳化,冷却和交联来模拟动物脂肪的机械特性的脂肪晶体网络。
In addition, several studies此外,几项研究[12][29][30][31]explored the effect of the protein content on plant-based emulsified cross-linked fat crystal networks simulating animal adipose tissue, confirming that the textural and rheological properties of emulsion gels can be changed to some extent by modifying the protein content in the initial emulsion before 探讨了蛋白质含量对模拟动物脂肪组织的植物性乳化交联脂肪晶体网络的影响,证实了乳化凝胶的质地和流变特性可以通过在TG cross-linking.交联前修饰初始乳液中的蛋白质含量来在一定程度上改变。
 Structured liquid oils结构化液态油
Plant or marine oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids are primarily in a liquid state. The introduction of these liquid oils with completely different physicochemical properties from solid animal fats can negatively affect the quality of the product. Liquid oils can be modified or structured to present a healthy fatty acid composition while maintaining their solid characteristics and plasticity富含不饱和脂肪酸的植物或海洋油主要处于液态。引入这些具有与固体动物脂肪完全不同的物理化学性质的液体油会对产品质量产生负面影响。液体油可以被修饰或结构化,以呈现健康的脂肪酸组成,同时保持其固体特性和可塑性[32].Emulsion乳液凝胶可用于液体油结构,为将更健康的油引入重新配制的低脂肉制品中提供了策略。由于液体油在由蛋白质基质组成的凝胶网络中稳定,因此含有非肉蛋白的O gels can be used for liquid oil structuring, providing a strategy for introducing healthier oils into reformulated low-fat meat products. Since liquid oils are stabilized in a gel network composed of a protein matrix, the O/W emulsion gel containing non-meat proteins improves the fat binding capacity of the system, stabilizing the oil in the structures of the meat products. Several studies/ W乳液凝胶改善了系统的脂肪结合能力,稳定了肉制品结构中的油。几项研究[33][34][35]introduced使用不同的蛋白质稳定O healthy oil combinations consisting of olive, linseed, and fish oil, into Frankfurters, using different protein-stabilized O/W emulsions. Furthermore, TG enzymes were incorporated to facilitate gel structure formation, yielding low-fat meat products with low SFA and high PUFA levels and suitable n-6/n-3 ratios that displayed consumer acceptability , indicating that this was a feasible method for stabilizing liquid oils./ W乳液,将由橄榄油,亚麻籽油和鱼油组成的健康油组合引入法兰克福人。此外,掺入TG酶以促进凝胶结构的形成,产生低SFA和高PUFA水平的低脂肉制品,以及显示消费者可接受的合适n-6 / n-3比率,表明这是稳定液体油的可行方法。
The introduction of functional ingredients and application of new technologies功能性成分的引入及新技术的应用
Compared with emulsions, oleogels, and hydrogels与乳液、油凝胶和水凝胶相比[36], emulsion gels are a better choice for improving the nutritional properties of food by carrying hydrophobic compounds and functional ingredients and protect bioactive compounds that act as carriers for hydrophobic compounds and functional ingredients and protect bioactive compounds within them 乳化凝胶是改善食品营养特性的更好选择,它携带疏水性化合物和功能性成分,保护作为疏水性化合物和功能性成分载体的生物活性化合物,保护其中的生物活性化合物。[37]. Compounds, such as polyphenols, display antioxidant activity and are often artificially added to improve the nutritional properties of foods. However, directly adding polyphenols to meat products degrades or inactivates them and may also cause a decline in the quality of the color and taste.化合物,如多酚,具有抗氧化活性,并且经常被人工添加以改善食物的营养特性。然而,直接在肉制品中添加多酚会降解或灭活它们,也可能导致颜色和味道的质量下降。
Freire et al.弗莱雷等人[38] formulated emulsio使用不同的蛋白质乳化剂和富含ns using different protein emulsifiers and a lipid phase rich in n-3 unsaturated fatty acids. They produced cold-set gels after adding a natural extract rich in concentrated tannins (CT), increasing the antioxidant activity and stability . Pintado et al. -3不饱和脂肪酸的脂质相配制乳液。他们在添加富含浓缩单宁(CT)的天然提取物后生产冷凝凝胶,增加了抗氧化活性和稳定性。平塔多等人[39] used extra virgin olive oil and 使用特级初榨橄榄油和SPI to produce emulsion gels as a phenolic compound delivery system to provide the product with moderate amounts of polyphenols to take advantage of their health benefits. Therefore, the use of emulsion gels containing two different polyphenol extracts (grapeseed or grapeseed and olive) as fat substitutes in Frankfurters was evaluated. The results indicated that incorporating the emulsion gel reduced the SFA proportion in the product by half with a higher 生产乳液凝胶作为酚类化合物输送系统,为产品提供适量的多酚,以利用其健康益处。因此,在法兰克福人中评估了含有两种不同多酚提取物(葡萄籽或葡萄籽和橄榄)的乳液凝胶作为脂肪替代品的使用。结果表明,掺入乳液凝胶使产品中的SFA比例降低了一半,PUFA/SFA ratio. Moreover, the Frankfurters containing the emulsion gel with the solid polyphenol extract displayed high levels of hydroxytyrosol (Hxt) and gallic acid, flavanol monomers, and their derivatives, while the trophic advantage did not cause undesirable sensory or structural changes and provided excellent stability . Therefore, the emulsion gel is suitable as a release system for polyphenols without obviously influencing the sensory properties of the product.比率较高。此外,含有乳液凝胶的法兰克福酯与固体多酚提取物显示出高水平的羟基酪醇(Hxt)和没食子酸、黄烷醇单体及其衍生物,而营养优势没有引起不良的感觉或结构变化,并提供了优异的稳定性。因此,乳液凝胶适合作为多酚的脱模系统,而不会明显影响产品的感官性能。
Shahbazi et al.沙赫巴兹等人。[40][41] used SPI and canola oil as raw materials to prepare emulsions. Several different biosurfactant agents (ethyl cellulose (EHEC), octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch, acetylated starch, and dodecyl succinate (DS) inulin) were separately added to the emulsion to replace some or all of the oil to prepare the desired low-fat soy protein emulsion gel, which was applied for 3D printing. Consequently , the emulsion gel was suitable for ink development when 3D printing low-fat artificial meat, providing a method for developing 3D-printed plant-based meat products.和菜籽油为原料制备乳液。将几种不同的生物表面活性剂(乙基纤维素(EHEC),辛烯基琥珀酸酐(OSA)淀粉,乙酰化淀粉和琥珀酸十二烷基酯(DS)菊粉)分别加入到乳液中以取代部分或全部油以制备所需的低脂大豆蛋白乳液凝胶,用于3D打印。因此,乳液凝胶适用于3D打印低脂人造肉时的油墨开发,为3D打印植物性肉制品的开发提供了一种方法。

3. Polysaccharide-Based Emulsion Gel多糖基乳液凝胶

3.1. Gelation Mechanism and Influencing Factors凝胶化机理及影响因素

When preparing emulsion gels as fat substitutes, it is necessary to maintain the desired appearance and rheological characteristics and acceptable sensory properties of the meat products after gel incorporation. An increase in the fat substitute proportion is generally associated with a decrease in sensory quality , especially a deterioration in juiciness, while polysaccharide gels display a higher water-retention ability and are suitable for constructing gels with different properties. Lipophilic agents with beneficial health effects can be incorporated into food while maintaining the product characteristics在制备乳化凝胶作为脂肪替代品时,有必要在凝胶掺入后保持肉制品所需的外观和流变特性以及可接受的感官特性。脂肪替代比例的增加通常与感官质量的降低有关,特别是多汁性的恶化,而多糖凝胶显示出更高的保水能力,并且适用于构建具有不同性质的凝胶。具有有益健康作用的亲脂性物质可以掺入食品中,同时保持产品特性[13].
During the preparation process of polysaccharide-based emulsion gel, the polysaccharides are dissolved at a high temperature, the emulsions are prepared at a moderate temperature, and gels are formed at a low temperature. The gelation mechanisms include the formation of double and cross-linked helical domains during cooling to form 在多糖基乳液凝胶的制备过程中,多糖在高温下溶解,乳液在中等温度下制备,并在低温下形成凝胶。凝胶化机制包括在冷却过程中形成双层和交联的螺旋域以形成3D structures结构[14].The advantages of polysaccharides include their ability to control food texture and flavor release多糖的优点包括它们能够控制食物质地和风味释放。[15], while their diverse structures and gelation conditions show significant promise for tailoring gels with desirable structures,而它们多样化的结构和凝胶化条件显示出定制具有理想结构的凝胶的重要前景[42].Characteristics such as molecular weight, size, monosaccharide composition, charge density , molecular conformation, and extrinsic conditions, such as temperature, 分子量、大小、单糖组成、电荷密度、分子构象和温度、pH, and ionic strength, are important factors affecting the structures of polysaccharide gels. Polysaccharides such as agar, carrageenan, pectin and konjac, are also important gelling agents in food, and they can also be considered as gel matrices 值、离子强度等外在条件等特征是影响多糖凝胶结构的重要因素。琼脂、角叉菜胶、果胶和魔芋等多糖也是食品中重要的胶凝剂,也可以作为凝胶基质[28].Polysaccharides can form gels at concentrations below 多糖可以通过各种分子相互作用形成浓度低于1% via various molecular interactions 的凝胶[43].

3.2. Polysaccharide-Based Emulsion Gels as Fat Substitutes in Meat Products多糖基乳液凝胶作为肉制品的脂肪替代品

Inulin and chia powder are often used as raw materials for polysaccharide-based emulsion gels due to their rich dietary fiber and functional properties, such as gelling, emulsification, and fat water-binding abilities菊粉和奇亚籽粉由于其丰富的膳食纤维和功能特性,如胶凝、乳化和脂肪水结合能力,通常被用作多糖基乳液凝胶的原料。[44][45]. In addition to its gelation, thickening, and stability properties除了其凝胶化、增稠和稳定性[46], carrageenan can also act as a meat binder and a texture stabilizer,卡拉胶还可以作为肉类粘合剂和质地稳定剂[21]. Some studies indicated that adding dietary fiber to meat products can help improve the stability and rheological properties of emulsions一些研究表明,在肉制品中添加膳食纤维可以帮助提高乳液的稳定性和流变性能。[47].Many polysaccharide biopolymers, such as konjac, inulin, and carrageenan, are commonly used to develop fat substitutes and have yielded excellent results thus far. Konjac glucomannan, extracted from the east Asian native plant, konjac, can be used for gel formation and fat substitution. Konjac gels can be ground to the desired particle size to simulate visible granular fat, which is suitable for mimicking the sensory properties and replacing animal fat许多多糖生物聚合物,如魔芋,菊粉和角叉菜胶,通常用于开发脂肪替代品,并且迄今为止已经产生了优异的结果。魔芋葡甘露聚糖,从东亚原生植物魔芋中提取,可用于凝胶形成和脂肪替代。魔芋凝胶可以研磨成所需的粒径,以模拟可见的颗粒脂肪,这适用于模仿感官特性并替代动物脂肪[48].
Reducing the fat content and improving the fatty acid profile降低脂肪含量,改善脂肪酸含量
Using polysaccharide emulsion gels as fat replacers can improve the water retention of meat products and promote regular water release during fermentation, which can maintain the sensory properties of products, such as dried fermented sausages使用多糖乳液凝胶作为脂肪替代品可以改善肉制品的保水性,促进发酵过程中水分的定期释放,从而可以保持产品(如干发酵香肠)的感官特性。[49]. Alejandre et al.阿勒甘德雷等人[50]prepared high使用κ-ω-3-content emulsion gels using κ-carrageenan and linseed oil. The phases were heated separately to 70 ◦C and emulsified via homogenization. Emulsion gel formation occurred via κ-carrageenan polymerization after gel cooling, allowing its application in dry-fermented sausages as a fat replacement. Compared with the control group, this method improved the fatty acid composition of dry-fermented sausages, reducing the 角叉菜胶和亚麻籽油制备高ω-3含量乳液凝胶。将相分别加热至70°C并通过均质化乳化。凝胶冷却后通过κ-角叉菜胶聚合形成乳液凝胶,允许其在干发酵香肠中作为脂肪替代品应用。与对照组相比,该方法改善了干发酵香肠的脂肪酸组成,降低了ω-6/ω-3 ratio. The addition of this emulsion gel increased the α-linolenic and ω-3 unsaturated fatty acid content, while no significant differences were evident in the color, taste, and juiciness of the reformulated low-fat sausages compared to traditional dry-fermented sausages. Therefore, emulsion gels prepared using linseed oil and carrageenan can be used as an alternative to dry-fermented sausages, since they retain sensory qualities acceptable to consumers.的比例。添加该乳胶增加了α-亚麻酸和ω-3不饱和脂肪酸含量,而与传统的干发酵香肠相比,重新配制的低脂香肠在颜色,味道和多汁性方面没有显着差异。因此,使用亚麻籽油和角叉菜胶制备的乳液凝胶可以用作干发酵香肠的替代品,因为它们保留了消费者可接受的感官品质。
Structured liquid oils结构化液态油
Even though not prepared as an emulsion gel, gels produced using only polysaccharides can also be used as fat replacers. Although Ruiz即使不是作为乳液凝胶制备的,仅使用多糖生产的凝胶也可以用作脂肪替代品。虽然鲁伊斯-Capillas et al. 卡皮拉斯等人[48] effectively reduced the fat in dry-fermented sausages using konjac gel as a fat substitute, this technique decreased the quality of the products to some extent. However, since the properties of emulsion gels differ from standard polysaccharide gels, liquid plant oils can be introduced into meat systems. Adding healthier plant oils may improve the fatty acid profiles in meat products while reducing the fat content. However, healthy plant oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids is prone to accelerated oxidative deterioration and shorter shelf life of foods while reducing the plasticity of the final product, causing a textural decrease and loss of nutritional properties. Therefore, it is necessary to stabilize the emulsion by reinforcing the structure. Structured liquid oil converted into emulsion gels can produce rheological properties close to those of animal fat [23][50], showing promise as a fat replacement approach when designing and developing low-fat meat products. Alejandre et al. [27] compared an organogel and an emulsion gel with κ-carrageenan as a matrix to examine the effect of animal fat replacement in these two structured oil systems in meat batter. The results indicated that meat batters formulated using organogels exhibited higher matrix stability and were incorporated into the meat matrix more efficiently than meat batter formulated with emulsion gels. However, the emulsion gel showed sufficient performance as a structured oil method, compensating for the deficiencies of direct plant oil addition. Therefore, it could be used as a fat substitute in the meat batter. Many studies have mixed olive oil, linseed oil, and other healthy oils to create stable emulsion gels with polysaccharide matrices, which were added to Frankfurters and other meat products to replace the fat, achieving relatively favorable results [51][52][53][54].
The development of fat cube substitutes
Polysaccharide-based emulsion gels can be converted into cubes to provide the appearance of visible fat lumps in meat products [55], such as sausages, consisting of a mixture of solid lumps of pork backfat and lean meat. However, studies involving simulated solid fat cubes and emulsion gels indicated that the emulsion gel must display a certain hardness and strength. Chen et al. [49] prepared fat cube substitutes using konjac glucomannan and κ -carrageenan to partially replace the pork backfat in dry Harbin sausages. The results showed that although using solid cube fat substitutes prepared via an emulsion gel was a feasible method for reducing the fat content in dry-fermented Harbin sausages, the property changes were related to the substitution level. No significant differences were evident between the physicochemical and sensory properties of the lower substitution level group and the control group, while high substitution levels produced changes in product characteristics. To ensure the sensory attributes of the dry Harbin sausages, the upper limit of the cube fat substitution level was 40%.
The introduction of functional components
As with their protein-based counterpart, polysaccharide-based emulsion gels can also be used to protect active substances and improve the nutritional value of food products. Alejandre et al. [56] added catechin-rich natural extracts from blackthorn branches to a κ-carrageenan emulsion gel system containing microalgal oil to obtain functional ingredients and use it as a fat substitute in beef patties. The results indicated that adding the extract to the polysaccharide-based emulsion gel system did not affect the overall sensory properties and acceptability of the product. Moreover, the extract provided high antioxidant properties to the emulsion gel, decreased the fat content in the beef patties after fat substitution, doubled the antioxidant activity and DHA content, and increased the antioxidant stability by reducing peroxide content.

4. Protein–Polysaccharide Composite-Based Emulsion Gels

4.1. The Gelation Mechanism and Influencing Factors

Combining proteins and polysaccharides represents a new approach for developing novel solid fat mimetics. Compared with the other two matrices, the composite matrix has been studied more extensively and presents a broader application scope. Emulsion gels containing polysaccharides and proteins display a higher similarity to real gel systems in food [28]. The simultaneous addition of protein and polysaccharide macromolecules may cause intermolecular correlations via electrostatic interaction, complex coacervation, and associative phase separation [57] to generate complexes that can quickly form network structures in food systems and produce diverse functions [58]. This method is commonly used to control the structure of food products for better texture and stability, while the diverse structures and gel conditions of polysaccharides make it possible to tailor gels with desirable structures [42].
Protein–polysaccharide gels are produced via gelation that does not require a denaturing process during protein gel preparation. The porosity and structures of the gels can be adjusted by changing conditions, such as protein or polysaccharide species, added quantity, ratio, pH, and salt concentration, while potentially altering the rheological properties and stabilizing the emulsions [43]. After a protein-based emulsion gel is generated, the hydrocolloids and other natural ingredients formed by the polysaccharides can also be added to tailor the gel structure and functionality. Furthermore, adding flaxseed gum changes the rheological properties of peanut protein isolate emulsions and gels, acts as a thickener to reduce gelation time, and improves gel strength [58]. Flaxseed gum or flax gum addition also enhances the apparent viscosity of SPI emulsion [59], playing a crucial role in improving the emulsion gelation properties, enhancing thermal stability, and increasing the structural strength of the gel network [60]. Therefore, adding polysaccharides to the aqueous phase of emulsions can act as a thickener, improving emulsion instability.

4.2. Protein–Polysaccharide Composite-Based Emulsion Gels as Fat Substitutes in Meat Products

Reducing the fat content and improving the fatty acid profile
Protein–polysaccharide composites display better functionality than individually acting proteins or polysaccharides. Santos et al. [61] used pork skin, inulin, α-cyclodextrin, and bamboo fiber as raw materials to replace the pork backfat in emulsified meat products. The pork skin, rich in collagen, exhibited high gelation and emulsification capacity. Furthermore, the interaction between the pork skin and dietary fiber significantly improved the hardness and stability of the emulsion gel, while the addition of bamboo fiber also enhanced the performance of the emulsion gel to a certain extent. The application scope of composite-based emulsion gels is broader than those with a single matrix. They are used in meat products, such as sausages and burger patties, as well as for developing seafood analogs. Modifying their concentrations can control the texture and network structures of the gels. Ran et al. [62] used konjac glucomannan to enhance cross-linking with soy protein to mimic the texture of fish balls. According to the results, konjac glucomannan addition significantly affected the textural and rheological properties of plant-based fish balls while increasing the hardness, chewiness, and gel strength at a higher concentration. The addition of konjac glucomannan contributes to the formation of a tighter gel network and denser cross-linking. A low konjac concentration increases the porosity and density of the structure, while an appropriate concentration enhances elasticity and gel strength. Therefore, the polysaccharide–protein composite-based emulsion gel displays excellent potential and application value for developing plant-based seafood analogs and novel low-fat meat products.
The development of fat cube substitutes
Both the strength and hardness of the gels can be improved by the combined effect of polysaccharides and proteins. This change is beneficial to the formation of the 3D cube fat substitute, modifying the textural properties and gel network structures of emulsion gels by adjusting the number of added polysaccharides and proteins, facilitating customization to obtain the optimal emulsion gel structure. Huang et al. [31]used an aqueous 使用与椰子油均质化的SPI solution homogenized with coconut oil to prepare an emulsion and subsequently added konjac glucomannan to obtain a 3D cube emulsion gel with a certain hardness and strength via the TG cross-linking effect. This was used as a fat substitute to study the effect of adding different protein and konjac concentrations to the emulsion gel systems. The findings indicated that the emulsion gel could be used to simulate a solid cube fat. It was similar to pork fat in appearance, exhibited desirable functional qualities in terms of both mechanical and oral tribological properties, and was favored by consumers at an added protein content of 1% and konjac content of 4%. The 3D structures of fat substitutes can provide the product with the desired visible fat cube appearance, for which a protein–polysaccharide composite matrix offers a potential approach. Moreover, protein–polysaccharide complexes are more successful in improving the performance deficit caused by a single raw material matrix than proteins or polysaccharides alone.水溶液制备乳液,随后加入魔芋葡甘露聚糖,通过TG交联效应得到具有一定硬度和强度的3D立方体乳液凝胶。这被用作脂肪替代品,以研究向乳液凝胶系统添加不同蛋白质和魔芋浓度的效果。研究结果表明,乳液凝胶可用于模拟固体立方体脂肪。它在外观上与猪肉脂肪相似,在机械和口腔摩擦学特性方面表现出理想的功能品质,并且以1%的添加蛋白质含量和4%的魔芋含量受到消费者的青睐。脂肪替代品的3D结构可以为产品提供所需的可见脂肪立方体外观,蛋白质 - 多糖复合基质为此提供了一种潜在的方法。此外,蛋白质 - 多糖复合物在改善由单一原料基质引起的性能缺陷方面比单独使用蛋白质或多糖更成功。
The application of cereal flour as a composite matrix emulsion gel谷类面粉作为复合基质乳液凝胶的应用
In addition to dietary fiber and protein, some cereal powder products also contain a high number of bioactive compounds, such as cocoa bean shells rich in catechins, theobromine, and caffeine, which can be used as matrices for developing emulsion gels除膳食纤维和蛋白质外,一些谷物粉产品还含有大量的生物活性化合物,例如富含儿茶素,可可碱和咖啡因的可可豆壳,可用作开发乳液凝胶的基质[63]. Pintado et al. 平塔多等人[64]used emulsion gels as delivery systems for healthier bioactive plant compounds to prepare gels from chia powder and olive oil as fat substitutes in low-fat Frankfurters. The results showed that adding chia powder emulsion gel reduced the fat level to 使用乳化凝胶作为更健康的生物活性植物化合物的输送系统,以制备基亚籽粉和橄榄油作为低脂法兰克福人的脂肪替代品的凝胶。结果表明,添加奇亚粉乳液凝胶可将脂肪水平降低至40%, consequently decreasing the energy intake by 30%, which could be labeled as “reduced fat content”. The reformulated Frankfurter contained a large number of minerals, such as magnesium, manganese, and calcium, with more lipid–protein interactions. Adding the emulsion gel retained the sensory characteristics of the Frankfurters within the accepted range, while the product displayed oxidative stability during storage. Subsequent studies used chia and oat-based emulsion gels to replace animal fats in low-fat fresh sausages (longanizas),从而将能量摄入降低30%,这可被标记为“脂肪含量降低”。重新配制的法兰克福含有大量的矿物质,如镁,锰和钙,具有更多的脂质 - 蛋白质相互作用。添加乳液凝胶在可接受的范围内保留了法兰克福人的感官特性,而产品在储存过程中表现出氧化稳定性。随后的研究使用奇亚籽和燕麦基乳液凝胶来代替低脂新鲜香肠(longanizas)中的动物脂肪。[65][66]. This reduced the product fat and energy, improved the fatty acid ratio, decreased cooking loss, and increased the concentrations of certain minerals and amino acids. In addition, oat emulsion gels are used as fat substitutes to provide meat products with 这减少了产品的脂肪和能量,改善了脂肪酸比例,减少了烹饪损失,并增加了某些矿物质和氨基酸的浓度。此外,燕麦乳液凝胶用作脂肪替代品,为肉制品提供β-glucan and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)葡聚糖和单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)[67]. Therefore, chia or oat emulsion gels as animal fat substitutes may increase the nutritional value of meat products, such as Frankfurters.因此,奇亚籽或燕麦乳液凝胶作为动物脂肪的替代品可能会增加肉制品的营养价值,例如法兰克福人。
Changes in the sensory properties of products caused by different substitution ratios不同替代率引起的产品感官特性变化
Due to the role of fat in meat products, changes in the sensory properties limit the application of fat substitutes. Therefore, meat products with an appropriate proportion of emulsion gel yielded mostly desirable results in sensory evaluation tests, while 由于脂肪在肉制品中的作用,感官特性的变化限制了脂肪替代品的应用。因此,具有适当比例的乳胶的肉制品在感官评价试验中产生大多是理想的结果,而100% animal fat substitution usually produced various negative effects. 的动物脂肪替代通常会产生各种负面影响。Serdarogğlu et al.[68] showed that completely replacing the beef fat in chicken patties with emulsion gels produced the lowest sensory evaluation scores, while samples with 结果表明,用乳胶完全替换鸡肉饼中的牛肉脂肪会产生最低的感官评价分数,而脂肪替代率为25% and 50% fat substitution exhibited similar scores to the whole fat samples. The results indicated that adding 50% emulsion gel rendered the chicken patties similar to the original product. The beef fat played an important role in flavor and provided the product with its characteristic flavor, even when reduced by half. Studies have shown that replacing all the fat with emulsion gels negatively impacts meat products和50%的样品与整个脂肪样品的得分相似。结果表明,加入50%的乳胶使鸡肉肉饼与原产品相似。牛肉脂肪在风味中起着重要作用,并为产品提供了其特有的风味,即使减少了一半。研究表明,用乳液凝胶代替所有脂肪会对肉制品产生负面影响。[64][69]. In most studies, the meat products in which 在大多数研究中,50% of the fat was replaced by emulsion gel displayed the best comprehensive quality, while a total substitution decreased the sensory properties of the samples while negatively affecting the textural and technological performance的脂肪被乳胶取代的肉制品显示出最佳的综合质量,而完全替代降低了样品的感官特性,同时对质地和技术性能产生了负面影响。[70]. However, 然而,Berker Nacak et al.等人。[71]produced composite emulsion gels using peanut and linseed oil to replace beef fat. These samples showed higher oil scores and overall acceptability during the sensory evaluation than the whole-fat control specimens. This result could be attributed to the emulsion gel providing the desired taste by covering the oil beads and their characteristic solid-like structures, consequently displaying a high simulation capacity. The different results may be related to the selection of raw materials, preparation technology, and the application of emulsion gels in different meat products. However, emulsion gels can potentially reduce the fat content of meat products and improve the distribution of fatty acids without reducing the sensory quality.生产复合乳胶,使用花生和亚麻籽油代替牛肉脂肪。这些样本在感官评估期间显示出比全脂对照样本更高的油分和整体可接受性。这一结果可归因于乳液凝胶通过覆盖油珠及其特征固体状结构来提供所需的味道,从而显示出高模拟能力。不同的结果可能与原料的选择,制备技术以及乳液凝胶在不同肉制品中的应用有关。然而,乳液凝胶可以潜在地降低肉制品的脂肪含量并改善脂肪酸的分布,而不会降低感官质量。


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