Food System and Circular Economy: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between versions V2 by Conner Chen and V3 by Conner Chen.

       Circular economy can play an active role in solving the unsustainability of the food production system, contributing to the creation of shorter and more resilient supply chains. Some solutions include policy regulations driving consumption towards more sustainable choices and the reduction of food waste: “best before” labels might be scrapped, food sharing initiatives incentivized and organic waste regarded as a high-value raw-material. Bio-refineries can be the catalyst of a green transition, where food waste can generate biofuels, bio-chemicals, plastics, textiles, medicines and much more. Circular practices seem to hold the potential for a win–win solution, simultaneously enhancing sustainability throughout the entire value chain (from production to consumption and post-consumption) and improving its resilience through the introduction of localized supply chains, making the food system less dependent on international trade. The European Union is working towards this direction (as its policy and social media agenda exposes) and will hopefully accelerate the transition to meet its Green New Deal expectations.

  • Food system
  • circular economy
  • Green new deal
  • resilience
  • bioecoomy
  • COVID-19

1. Introduction

       Having shown tThe increased importance placed on the food system in the EU’s social media agenda, as well as the growing concerns around the sustainability and resilienceCOVID-19 pandemic has generated a huge economic crisis and exposed many of the food system, we shall now discuss how this topic has been integrated into the scholarly and practitioner debate over the circularallacies of the current world economy. By extending our analysis beyond social media, we hope to achieve a more finely grained assessment of the nexus between the COVID-19 pandemic andic system, including the food system [1]. At tThe same time, by assessing the link between the food system and the circular economy, we seek to propose some actionable—albeit preliminary—solutions.

 aim of this paper is twofold: first, it aims at identifying      As the German philosopher Feuerbach said, “We are what we eat.” Perhaps this saying might even extend to COVID-19, as many have pointed out that our global rise and fall of specific narratives related to the food system (and economy) greatly increases our risk of experiencing aduring the pandemic. In what follows, we will present the results of our comprehensive systematic literature review (drawing on Tranfield et al.’s by means of a content analysis of social media content. This analysis will show [1] approach) to assess causes, consequences and circular solutions pertaining to the link between tw issues associated with the food system and the COVID-19 pandemic.

   gained    Systematic reviews differ from traditional narrative reviews in their replicable, scientific and transparent process, aimed at minimizing bias tentrality through exhaustive literature searches of published and unpublished studies and providing an audit trail of reviewers’ decisions, procedures and conclusions. Our review began with the definition of our goals: to find and integrate the most recent out the lockdown, raising questions regarding the (lack of) sustainability and relevant literature on the relationship between COVID-19, tsiliency of the food system and the circular economy. Subsequently, we analyzed and selected the most recent available literature on the topic, encompassing both scientific papers and gray it will present the preliminary findings of a systematic literature, such as reports and plans from policymakers and international organizations. No subjective distinction was made between scientific papers and other documents, provided that they respected the rules described hereinafter review aimed at identifying possible solutions for improving the food system within the recent scholarly debate.

       The research was mainly conducted through the SCOPUS and Google Scholar public search engines. Forty-three references were selected and shortlisted ose two objectives represent, in the basis of publication date (published in 2015 or later) and correspondence with specific keywords (i.e., “COVID-19,” “food,” “circular economy”), with the aim of generating collective insights through a theoretical synthesis of fields and subfields. The search was first conducted with the use of the “AND” Boolean operator, then expanded using the “OR” Boolean operator.

 authors’ view, two faces of the same coin. By addressing them simultaneously, we seek to present a full picture    of  The data extraction process focused on synthesizing key information, based on the abovementioned goal of offering an up-to-date review of the current global how discourse around the food system and selecting the most recent and relevant solutions to enhance its sustainability and circularity.

2. Causes

       The W(in the context orld Food Programme [2] recently confirmed that the devastating economic impacts of e COVID-19 reinforce the need for investments to prevent future outbreaks of infectious diseases. In so doing, it emphasized the interconnections between people, animals, plants and their shared environment, as well as the need for stable and sustainable architecture to make economic growth feasible, while respecting the surrounding environment [3][4]emergency) is being shaped and communicated in the interest of developing solutions.

       There are twCo primary issues with the current industrial food system. First, intensive livestock production amplifies the risk of disease, since it involves the confinement of large numbers of animals in small spaces, narrowing genetic diversity and fast animal turnover. Second, habitat destruction, unchecked urbanization and land grabbing lead to amplified human–wildlife interaction, which eventually leads to zoonotic spillovermmunication strategies are important, especially in social and political contexts, [5]. It ias therey offore clear that pandemics, like the COVID-19 one, are not random events, but the logical result of our current food system and, to a wider scale, our economic model.

       Anoer the possibility to introduce and attracther catalyst of pandemics is urbanization, as indicated above. Thirty-five years ago, more than 60% of the global population lived in rural areas; this figure has now dropped to 46%, while the urban population is set to reach 68% by 2050 [6]. Cities are alrattention to new problems. To this extent, the disseady consuming 75% of the world’s natural resources and 80% of the global energy supply [7]. Urbannation of ization impacts food consumption patterns by increasing demand for processed foods, animal-based foods, fruits and vegetables. Higher urban wages also tend to increase the opportunity costs of preparing food and favor food products that require a large amount of labor, such as fast food, store-bought convenience food and food that is prepared and sold by street vendors [6].

       Chformation is crucial in tracking the path that society should follow, as well as raisina, the alleged epicenter of this and several previous disease outbreaks, has one o public awareness of the highest urbanization rates in the world, having doubled its level over the past 40 years (from 22.7% to 54.4%) [8]. This urbaimportance of particular issues. Henization has closely paralleled rising animal protein consumption (due to higher wages), increased land conversion and livestock production, higher zoonotic risk (due to closer contact with wild animals) and a more rapid spread of pathogens through the globalized channels of world economy.

3. Consequences

       Ae, it is important to investigate how experts and policymakers propos mentioned above, when lockdown measures were first introduced, stockpiling behaviors prevailed, while governments reassured their resident solutions and inform citizens about the resilience of food supply chains and business continuity in the agri-food sectors. In fact, there are diverging opinions on the actual solidity of food system. Their methods for doing so, as discussed in the current food system: for some, empty grocery shelves are not just the result of the human tendency to hoard in times of danger, but also an important reminder that our food supply chains are easily disrupted and that many of our food systems lack resiliency and redundancy [9]. Many glowork, might influence subjects’ attitudes, behaviors and bal regions rely on highly centralized food systems, at the expense of strong local and regional systems that could provide a better buffering capacity when needed [9]. Hliefs about adopting mowever, other scholars have countered that if the number of importing countries has risen for most crops, so has the number of exportse sustainable practices.

  in  many countries. This has made trade more resilient to swings in supply and demand. Supply lines may empty, but alternatives can be found. For instance, when Indian traders stopped signing new export contracts in April, Carrefour, a French supermarket group, found new rice suppliers in Pakistan and Vietnam and opened a beef import route from Romania [10]. None   The present analysis starts by framing the sustainability issue against the contheless, even the most optimist commentators acknowledge that the current food system has bottlenecks (as does every global supply chain) and that good harvests in 2019 were able to account for some of the resilience of the food supply chain in the face ofmporary backdrop of the health and economic crisis effected by COVID-19 [10].

       Over the long term, conAsumer food habits might change along three main directions. First, the rapid growth in online grocery delivery services might continue. While many big companies were already implementing this service pre-pandemic, their systems struggled to cope with the sudden expansion in online orders during the lockdown, leaving long time lags before delivery slots were available the pandemic is a contingent matter that has yet to unfold its deepest consequences, we will [11]. Theonly same could be said about food delivery systems, which mainly operate via mobile phone apps: since the pandemic hit, such apps have been increasingly used by restaurants, as in-person dining has been severely restricted in many countriesek to evaluate its possible economic repercussions. Therefore, to some extent, the crisis has dematerialized and “desocialized” the food sector, speeding up consumers’ adoption of online services. The duration and degree of this trend is still uncertain are divergent opinions on this matter, but the effect could be noticeable (depending on cultural factors) [11].

       Sone cecond, consumers might demonstrate a revived interest in “local” food supply chains. In fact, interest in “local foods” was established prior to the pandemic, as people understood this food to offer economic, social, environmental and health benefitstainty is that the crisis will [12]. Local food is usually perceived as fresher and—particularly in the present context—more convenient, as it can be easily bought in smaller stores, allowing consumers to avoid long queues outside supermarkets. During the pandemic, consumers also expressed a desire to support the eave a mark and question the global economic recovery of local small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Again, how rooted and long-lasting this effectorder, as never before. We will be is still unknown, also considering that local food chains are less cost efficient than global ones [11].

       Third,explore the deep causes of the the pandemic has forced people to significantly change their daily lifestyles, and these changes might persist over the long term. Staying home all day in what was previously a rushed, globalized society has tested people’s resilience and led them to question their priorities. People have been forced to slow down their rhythms and rediscover new hobbies and passions (e.g., cooking, instead of buying processed food). It seems that waste recycling has benefitted from these changes [13], aand the connection between COVID-19 and the current food system, which has exposed the falongside a general decrease in waste production (due also to the economic slowdown) [14]acies of the latter.

4. Circular Solutions

       As discSussed above, the pandemic has put the current food system—focused on a linear and globalized production and consumption model—under high stress. Tjisse Stelpstra of the European Committee of the Regions has said that the devastating situation created by COVID-19 must bring all policymakers together and be the wake-up call for a new economic model that places social wellbeing and environmental sustainability at the core of the EU’s economic recoverybsequently, we will analyze the communication strategy adopted by particular social media accounts . As mentioned, we will specifically investigate the dynamics of [14]. The circEular economy could be a pivotal element of this recovery plan [15].

       Accordopean Uning to an EU advisory scientific study [16], n (EU) communicachieving a sustainable food system means “increasing or maintaining agricultural yields and efficiency while decreasing the environmental burden on biodiversity, soils, water and air; reducing food loss and waste; and stimulating dietary changes towards healthier and less resource-intensive diets”. Juions rgilevich et al. [17] summlarized that the EU Commission have identified three main stages ofed to the food system with reference to the circular economy: production, consumption and waste.

       A. Our social media content analysis for the fwirst stage, the “localization” of the food system might represent a more resilient and sustainable solution: localized food systems reduce waste and favor nutrients [17]. Coll aim at assessing: (1) how the COVID-19 pandembining local and seasonal elements in short supply chains reduces storage and transportation, provides a better supply–demand balance, creates more transparency and tracking and contributes to waste reduction. In addition, consumers seem to place higher value on food purchased in local markets.

       Anc has re-shaped the EU’s social media agenda with respect to the food system and the circular ecother known issue regarding food production is packaging. Our current food system is based on single-use packaging, although recent trends have shown improvements in both the quantity anmy; and (2) how themes relating to the food system and the quality of this packaging. Still, many recycling processes are insufficient, as is the case for light PET bottles and multilayer plastic (as opposed to mono-material plastic) [18]. In tcircular economy have evolved/co-evolved over this vein, policymakers should continue to incentivize the reduced use of plastic, in favor of more durable or recyclable materials, such as paper, aluminum, steel and glass, even though these materials do not altogether prevent the accumulation of unwanted metal ions through repeated recycling [18]. For period of the pandemic and gained momentum amongst EU cithis reason, research and development (R&D) in materials science and engineering must be a priority.

       As for consumption, pozens. To this end, we wilicymakers should focus on making sustainable choices the easiest options and transferring costs to unsustainable food choices. One example of a sustaiTwitter posts, as these enable choice is the avoidance and/or reduction of meat consumption. Through the lens of the circular economy, reduced meat consumption increases the efficiency of material flows within the food system by reducing the amount of energy, land and water used per calorie of food produced [19]. Furthermthe re-construction of social networks, comprised of vertexes (i.e., peore, policymakers should invest more in food and nutrition education, in order to raise awareness not only amongst the younger generations, but also amongst the older ones, by disseminating information campaigns through both traditional and innovative media channelsle, institutions) and links (connections between accounts, people and institutions).

       Besidwes these non-binding actions, more incisive ones (i.e., fiscal and regulatory measures) could force producers and consumers to improve their practices in support of greater sustainability. Policymakers might introduce bans, impose specific production and sourcing requirements, influence demand via public procurement and impose taxes or fees. These fiscal measures might encourage producers, suppliers and retailers to make sustainable choices and/or directly add costs to unhealthy or non-sustainable food for customers, in the form of a Pigouvian tax. Indeed, the SAPEA report [20] stat will analyze possible solutions identified in the recent literature, placing particularly attention on how the Europes that “examples of relatively imposing instruments that have become increasingly popular include the use of fiscal instruments (e.g., sugar and fat taxes), standard-setting (e.g., on the maximum amount of salt allowed in products), and outright bans (e.g., on trans fats)” (p. 98).

       The final stage of the ffood system, relating to waste, is perhaps where the circular economy can have the largest and most immediate impact. Indeed, as stated might be revolutionized by the European Union [16], “food waste takes place all along the value chain: during production and distribution, in shops, restaurants, catering facilities, and at homeThis makes it particularly hard to quantify” [par 5.2]. Wiinthin the larger food system, prododuction accounts for approximately 24–30% of total waste, while the post-harvest stage accounts for 20% and consumption accounts for 30–35%. Cereals account for 53% oof circular economy principles, also in light of the total waste; surprisingly, meat accounts for only 7%—far less than the impact of meat productionCOVID-19 crisis. We will focus on the environment [21]. Accordpotenting to Stuart, 30–50% of material intended for consumption (including animal material that is fed to animals or discarded as a byproduct) is wasted in North America and the EU at differentl for circular economy solutions to impact all three stages of the food system [22]. Acco—prding to Bajzelj [23], the reduction, of food waste is essential for achieving a resilient food system.

       Iconsumpt is important to distinguish between edible and non-edible food waste, as only the latter is actually defined as wasteon and waste disposal. Ed

Fible food is potentially ready to be consumed, either by its owner or by another person. To reduce food waste, food labelling policies should be changed and harmonized, as “best before” labels are likely to generate unnecessary waste due to consumer misperceptions of food quality. Indeed, according to Borrello et al. [24], “Even when consumers try to follow indications of producers, 20% of food is thrown away because of the confusion generated by the dates on product labelling”. [p. 2]. Polally, we will summarize the interconnecticymakers should act to prevent these losses by imposing strict limitations on “best before” labels. In this vein, the EU Commission announced that it “will examine ways of promoting a better use and understanding of date marking by the various actors of the food chain. The EU [16] has also adopted measures to prevent edible fish being thrown back into the sea from fishing vessels” [par. 5.2].

       Some authors warn that ns between COVID-19, the food sharing initiativeys might facilitate upstream food waste, as such initiatives allow consumers to get rid of their waste without preventing its generation in the first place. Thus, they act as “short-term sticking plasters” that obscutem and the circulare entrenched issues of food poverty. Further research is needed to verify the real impact of these actions, which are very diverse and fragmented in their nature [20].

   conomy. While there remains much    As regards non-edible food waste, this should remain in the system chain and be regarded as a precious resource—not only for the production of more food, but also for the production of new energy (which can be used as fuel in countries seeking to reduce their environmental footprint) and much more. Some policymakers promote “backyard composting” [25], ork to be done to facilitate the transitior self-composting at home. More actions and incentives may be needed to promote this activity, considering that it also facilitates the possibility of growing fruits, vegetables and other plants at home. This would enhance household engagement with the production of clean local food and reduce demand for industrial agricultural products, thereby limiting the use of water and chemical fertilizers.

       Th to a more sustainable food system, many instruments have alreatdy being said, food waste can take on many other forms, thanks to “green chemistry” solutions ween set out for this purpose. Within bio-refineries, which can generate biofuels, bio-chemicals, plastics, textiles, medicines and more from organic waste [27]. Wthe context of thile a circular food system should primarily aim at transforming food waste into new food, where this is not possible, the system should reinvest these resources into new energy or material forms, which may be equally current pandemic, a socio-economically beneficial.

The and present anaolysis clearly shows that a circular food system should not be entirely self-contained, but it should incorporate a wider reconsideration of the current fossil-fueled, linear and unsustainable economic model itical international shift could ease the process towards one that is green, resilient and achieving a more sustainable model—that is, a bioeconomy powered by and circularity. Policymakers should therefore engage more with this transition, with the aim of creating a fertile ground for a more sustainable food system (and society) by:

  • Reshaping food production via localized supply chains and improved packaging;

  • Guiding consumption towards sustainable choices, through a mixture of tax and education policies;

  • Focusing and investing in the conversion of non-edible food waste into energy and materials, via green chemistry and bio-refineries.

food system.


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