Nanomedicines represent the cutting edge of today’s cancer therapeutics. Seminal research decades ago has begun to pay dividends in the clinic, allowing for the delivery of cancer drugs with enhanced systemic circulation while also minimizing off-target toxicity. Despite the advantages of delivering cancer drugs using nanoparticles, micelles, or other nanostructures, only a small fraction of the injected dose reaches the tumor, creating a narrow therapeutic window for an otherwise potent drug. First-pass metabolism of nanoparticles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) has been identified as a major culprit for the depletion of nanoparticles in circulation before they reach the tumor site. To overcome this, new strategies, materials, and functionalization with stealth polymers have been developed to improve nanoparticle circulation and uptake at the tumor site.