Please note this is a comparison between versions V2 by Amina Yu and V5 by Amina Yu.

In two-fluid model (TFM), the granular flows are modeled as continuous fluid flows. The random motions of particles resulting from the interactive collisions of particles has a dominant effect on the flow behavior. The granular interactions are commonly modeled based on the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF).

- dense granular flow
- rotating drum
- flow and mixing
- two-fluid model

Granular matter are ubiquitous in the daily lives and in industries, but they behave differently from other familiar forms of matter, such as solids, liquids and gases ^{[1]} [1]. Some researchers have even suggested that granular medium be considered as an additional form of substance existence [2]. The science of granular media has a long history [3], but the description of granular flow still remains an open issue due to its intriguing range of complex, nonlinear behavior. Because of their practicability and complexity, knowledge of the dynamics of particles is of high interest in engineering and academia. Among the many varieties of particle processing equipment, the rotating drum is a typical one with dense granular flow inside, and it is widely used in the industry for mixing, drying, milling, coating, or granulation/agglomeration ^{[4]} [4]. Particle flow in rotating drums exhibits a range of complex phenomena, such as avalanche, segregation, and convection [5]. Therefore, the current paper focus on dense granular flow in rotating drums.

The diameter of the rotating drum used in the industry ranges from a few meters to tens of meters, and the number of particles in it is huge. Therefore, the cost of industrial-scale experimental research is quite high. Moreover, it is difficult to get the particle scale information accurate in experiments [6]. With the rapid development of computers, numerical methods provide an effective and cost-saving alternative way to study particle flow behavior in rotating drums. The two common numerical methods are the discrete element method (DEM) and the two-fluid model (TFM). DEM has been applied in this area since the 1990s [7]. DEM calculates the motion and force equation of individual particles, so it can provide valuable particle scale information, such as coordinate number, collision velocity, and collision frequency [8].

Year of Publication |
Focus of the Study | Validation Basis | Rotation Method | D (mm) |
L (mm) |
Flight or Not |
Particle Type |
d (mm) |
ρ | _{s} | (kg/m | ^{3} | ) | Particle Shape |
---|

2012 ^{[10]} | 2012 [45] | Dynamic characteristics and the rheology of a granular viscous flow scale up | Particle velocity and dimensionless active layer thickness | - | 400 | - | No | Uniform | 1.5 | 2900 | Spherical |

2013 ^{[11]} | 2013 [46] | Particle dynamic behavior | Solid flow regime and velocity distribution | - | 195 | 500 | No | Uniform | 1.09/3.68 | 2460 | Spherical |

2015 ^{[12]} | 2015 [17] | The effect of operating conditions on solids flow | Solids hold up in the flight | moving mesh | 108 | 500 | Yes | Uniform | 1.09/1.84/2.56 2.56 |
2455 2090 |
Spherical |

2016 ^{[13]} | 2016 [42] | Predict the transverse and axial solid-flow patterns, the fluid-flow profile, and particle residence time | Particle and fluid velocities and residence time | moving wall | 390 | 450 | No | Uniform | 4.25 | 1370 | Spherical |

2016 ^{[14]} | 2016 [47] | Heat transfer and mixing characteristics | Velocity and temperature of particles | - | 203 | - | No | Uniform | 2.5 | 2627 | Spherical |

2017 ^{[15]} | 2017 [27] | Boundary condition effects on the particle dynamic flow | Solids hold up in the flight, the bed height and solid volume fraction distribution | moving mesh | 108 | 500 | Yes | Uniform | 1.09 | 2455 | Spherical |

2017 ^{[16]} | 2017 [48] | The effects of specularity and restitution coefficients under different solid-flow regimes | Solid volume fraction distribution | moving mesh | 300 | 450 | Yes | Uniform | 25 | 7890 | Spherical |

2017 ^{[17]} | 2017 [49] | The effects of parameters on heat transfer characteristics | Average temperature of granular materials | moving wall | 300 | 350 | Yes | Uniform | 1 | 3900 | Spherical |

2018 ^{[18]} | 2018 [50] | The effects of parameters on the hydrodynamic and granular temperature of particles | Particle velocity | moving wall | 215 | - | No | Uniform | 6.2 | 1164 | Spherical |

2018 ^{[19]} | 2018 [51] | Irregular particle (non-spherical) dynamics | Rice grains velocities and drum transverse plane | moving wall and moving mesh | 390 | 20/30/40 | No | Uniform | 3.44 * | 1465 | Non-spherical |

2019^{[20]} | 2019 [28] | The effects of parameters on the charge of solid in the flight | Solids hold up in the flight and solid volume fraction distribution | moving mesh | 108 | 500 | Yes | Uniform | 1.09 1.02 |
1551 963 |
Spherical |

2020 ^{[21]} | 2020 [10] | Solid frictional viscosity and wall friction | Particle velocity and flow pattern | moving mesh | 100 | - | No | Uniform | 3 | 2500 | Spherical |

2021 ^{[22]} | 2021 [52] | The comparison between the Eulerian (CFD) and the Lagrangian (DEM) approaches | Solids hold up in the flight and solid volume fraction distribution | moving mesh | 108 | 500 | Yes | Uniform | 1.09 | 2455 | Spherical |

2007^{[23]} | 2007 [15] | Main features of solids motion and segregation | Particle velocity and concentration | - | 240 | 1000 | No | Binary | 1.5/3 | 2600 | Spherical |

2013^{[24]} | 2013 [32] | Particle segregation and model of granular viscosity | End-view bed profile | - | 45 | 50 | No | Binary | 0.385/0.775 | 2500 | Spherical |

2016 ^{[25]} | 2016 [53] | Quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the mixture and segregation processes | Drum transverse plane | - | 220 | 500 | No | Binary | 6.35/1.13 | 2460 | Spherical |

2017 ^{[26]} | 2017 [30] | Particle segregation and model of granular viscosity | End-view bed profile | - | 500 | 500 | No | Binary | 0.385/0.545/0.775 | 2500 | Spherical |

2017 ^{[27]} | 2017 [31] | Effects of specularity coefficient on particle segregation | End-view bed profile | - | 500 | 500 | No | Binary | 0.385/0.545/0.775 | 2500 | Spherical |

2020 ^{[28]} | 2020 [21] | Mixing and segregation of particles | The evolution of the degree of mixing and mixing process | - | 150 | 10 | No | Binary | 3/1.5 | 2600 | Spherical |

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