Food Marketing: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 2 by Catherine Yang and Version 1 by Vítor Martinho.

It would seem important to analyse the relationships between food marketing and consumer choice,

highlighting the role of brands in these frameworks. For this purpose, a literature review was carried

out considering 147 documents from Scopus database for the topics of search “food marketing” and

“choices” (search performed on 16 October 2020). As main insights, it is worth highlighting that the

main issues addressed by the literature, concerning food marketing and consumer choices, are the

following: economic theory; label and packaging; marketing strategies; agriculture and food industry;

market segments; social dimensions; brand and branding. In turn, food marketing heavily conditions

consumer choices; however, these related instruments are better manipulated by larger companies.

In addition, this review highlights that bigger companies have dominant positions in these markets

which are not always beneficial to the consumers’ objectives.

It would seem important to analyse the relationships between food marketing and consumer choice, highlighting the role of brands in these frameworks. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out considering 147 documents from Scopus database for the topics of search “food marketing” and“choices” (search performed on 16 October 2020). As main insights, it is worth highlighting that the main issues addressed by the literature, concerning food marketing and consumer choices, are the following: economic theory; label and packaging; marketing strategies; agriculture and food industry; market segments; social dimensions; brand and branding. In turn, food marketing heavily conditions consumer choices; however, these related instruments are better manipulated by larger companies. In addition, this entry highlights that bigger companies have dominant positions in these markets which are not always beneficial to the consumers’ objectives.

  • literature survey
  • Scopus
  • brands
  • consumer preferences
Please wait, diff process is still running!


  1. Arroyo, P.E.; Linan, J.; Vera Martinez, J. Who really values healthy food? Br. Food J. 2020.
  2. Proserpio, C.; Fia, G.; Bucalossi, G.; Zanoni, B.; Spinelli, S.; Dinnella, C.; Monteleone, E.; Pagliarini, E. Winemaking Byproducts as Source of Antioxidant Components: Consumers’ Acceptance and Expectations of Phenol-Enriched Plant-Based Food. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 661.
  3. Daly, J. A social practice perspective on meat reduction in Australian households: Rethinking intervention strategies. Geogr. Res. 2020, 58, 240–251.
  4. De Dominicis, S.; Bonaiuto, F.; Fornara, F.; Cancellieri, U.G.; Petruccelli, I.; Crano, W.D.; Ma, J.; Bonaiuto, M. Food Reputation and Food Preferences: Application of the Food Reputation Map (FRM) in Italy, USA, and China. Front. Psychol. 2020, 11, 1499.
  5. Szolnoki, G.; Hauck, K. Analysis of German wine consumers’ preferences for organic and non-organic wines. Br. Food J. 2020, 122, 2077–2087.
  6. Li, S.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, S. The congruence effect of food shape and name typeface on consumers’ food preferences. Food. Qual. Prefer. 2020, 86, 104017.
  7. Martinho, V.J.P.D. The Behaviour of External Markets for the Portuguese Wine: Its Implications in the Sustainability of the Sector. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment (icee 2019): Bringing Together Engineering and Economics; Ferreira, P., Soares, I., Eds.; Univ Minho: Guimaraes, Portugal, 2019; pp. 406–411. ISBN 978-989-97050-9-8.
  8. Martinho, V.J.P.D. The evolution of the milk sector in Portugal: Implications from the Common Agricultural Policy. Open Agric. 2020, 5, 582–592.
  9. Martinho, V.J.P.D. The Competitiveness of the Portuguese Wine Sector: An Important Indicator for a Sustainable Development. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment (icee 2019): Bringing Together Engineering and Economics; Ferreira, P., Soares, I., Eds.; Univ Minho: Guimaraes, Portugal, 2019; pp. 372–377. ISBN 978-989-97050-9-8.
  10. Scopus Scopus (Article Title, Abstract, Keywords). Available online: (accessed on 16 October 2020).
  11. Liberati, A.; Altman, D.G.; Tetzlaff, J.; Mulrow, C.; Gøtzsche, P.C.; Ioannidis, J.P.A.; Clarke, M.; Devereaux, P.J.; Kleijnen, J.; Moher, D. The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration. PLoS Med. 2009, 6.
  12. Web of Science Web of Science (Core Collection). Available online: (accessed on 2 November 2020).
  13. Zotero Zotero Software. Available online: (accessed on 2 November 2020).
  14. Agnew, J.; Henson, S.; Cao, Y. Are Low-Income Consumers Willing to Pay for Fortification of a Commercially Produced Yogurt in Bangladesh. Food Nutr. Bull. 2020, 41, 102–120.
  15. Samuelson, P.; Nordhaus, W. Economics, 19th ed.; McGraw-Hill Education: Boston, MA, USA, 2009; ISBN 978-0-07-351129-0.
  16. Watson, F.; Ekici, A. Well-being in Alternative Economies: The Role of Shared Commitments in the Context of a Spatially-Extended Alternative Food Network. J. Macromark. 2017, 37, 206–216.
  17. McMahon, A.-T.; Williams, P.; Tapsell, L. Reviewing the meanings of wellness and well-being and their implications for food choice. Perspect. Public Health 2010, 130, 282–286.
  18. Phillips, T.; Ravuvu, A.; McMichael, C.; Thow, A.M.; Browne, J.; Waqa, G.; Tutuo, J.; Gleeson, D. Nutrition policy-making in Fiji: Working in and around neoliberalisation in the Global South. Crit. Pub. Health 2019.
  19. Roberto, C.A. How psychological insights can inform food policies to address unhealthy eating habits. Am. Psychol. 2020, 75, 265–273.
  20. Rogers, R.T.; Caswell, J.A. Strategic management and the internal organization of food marketing firms. Agribusiness 1988, 4, 3–10.
  21. Thompson, G.D. Consumer demand for organic foods: What we know and what we need to know. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 1998, 80, 1113–1118.
  22. Wu, L.; Gong, X.; Chen, X.; Hu, W. Compromise Effect in Food Consumer Choices in China: An Analysis on Pork Products. Front. Psychol. 2020, 11.
  23. Pulker, C.E.; Li, D.C.C.; Scott, J.A.; Pollard, C.M. The impact of voluntary policies on parents’ ability to select healthy foods in supermarkets: A qualitative study of australian parental views. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3377.
  24. Scrinis, G.; Parker, C. Front-of-Pack Food Labeling and the Politics of Nutritional Nudges. Law Policy 2016, 38, 234–249.
  25. Grabenhorst, F.; Schulte, F.P.; Maderwald, S.; Brand, M. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala. NeuroImage 2013, 74, 152–163.
  26. Amos, C.; Pentina, I.; Hawkins, T.G.; Davis, N. “Natural” labeling and consumers’ sentimental pastoral notion. J. Prod. Brand Manag. 2014, 23, 268–281.
  27. Arrúa, A.; Curutchet, M.R.; Rey, N.; Barreto, P.; Golovchenko, N.; Sellanes, A.; Velazco, G.; Winokur, M.; Giménez, A.; Ares, G. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children’s choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system. Appetite 2017, 116, 139–146.
  28. Ares, G.; Arrúa, A.; Antúnez, L.; Vidal, L.; Machín, L.; Martínez, J.; Curutchet, M.R.; Giménez, A. Influence of label design on children’s perception of two snack foods: Comparison of rating and choice-based conjoint analysis. Food Qual. Prefer. 2016, 53, 1–8.
  29. Cannon, J. Notions of region and the Mediterranean diet in food advertising: Quality marks or subjective criteria? Br. Food J. 2005, 107, 74–83.
  30. Elliott, C. Milk in a glass, milk in a carton: The influence of packaging on children’s perceptions of the healthfulness of milk. Int. J. Health Promot. Edu. 2018, 56, 155–164.
  31. Hallez, L.; Qutteina, Y.; Raedschelders, M.; Boen, F.; Smits, T. That’s my cue to eat: A systematic review of the persuasiveness of front-of-pack cues on food packages for children vs. adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1062.
  32. Ikonen, I.; Sotgiu, F.; Aydinli, A.; Verlegh, P.W.J. Consumer effects of front-of-package nutrition labeling: An interdisciplinary meta-analysis. J. Acad. Mark. Sci. 2020, 48, 360–383.
  33. Kraak, V.I.; Story, M. Influence of food companies’ brand mascots and entertainment companies’ cartoon media characters on children’s diet and health: A systematic review and research needs. Obes. Rev. 2015, 16, 107–126.
  34. Ogle, A.D.; Graham, D.J.; Lucas-Thompson, R.G.; Roberto, C.A. Influence of Cartoon Media Characters on Children’s Attention to and Preference for Food and Beverage Products. J. Acad. Nutri. Diet. 2017, 117, 265–270.e2.
  35. Letona, P.; Chacon, V.; Roberto, C.; Barnoya, J. A qualitative study of children’s snack food packaging perceptions and preferences. BMC Public Health 2014, 14.
  36. Lwin, M.O.; Vijaykumar, S.; Chao, J. “Natural” and “Fresh”: An Analysis of Food Label Claims in Internationally Packaged Foods in Singapore. J. Food Prod. Mark. 2015, 21, 588–607.
  37. Monro, J.A. Evidence-based food choice: The need for new measures of food effects. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2000, 11, 136–144.
  38. Sussman, R.L.; McMahon, A.T.; Neale, E.P. An audit of the nutrition and health claims on breakfast cereals in supermarkets in the illawarra region of Australia. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1604.
  39. Nelson, A. They are what they eat? Ensuring our children get the right nutrients. J. Fam. Health Care 2013, 23, 14–16.
  40. Pulker, C.E.; Scott, J.A.; Pollard, C.M. Ultra-processed family foods in Australia: Nutrition claims, health claims and marketing techniques. Public Health Nutr. 2018, 21, 38–48.
  41. Roberto, C.A.; Baik, J.; Harris, J.L.; Brownell, K.D. Influence of licensed characters on children’s taste and snack preferences. Pediatrics 2010, 126, 88–93.
  42. Roberto, C.A.; Pomeranz, J.L.; Fisher, J.O. The need for public policies to promote healthier food consumption: A comment on Wansink and Chandon (2014). J. Consum. Psychol. 2014, 24, 438–445.
  43. Rodrigues, A.S.; Carmo, I.D.; Breda, J.; Rito, A.I. Association between marketing of high energy food and drinks and childhood obesity. Rev. Port. Saude Publica 2011, 29, 180–187.
  44. Santana, M.O.; Guimarães, J.S.; Leite, F.H.M.; Mais, L.A.; Horta, P.M.; Bortoletto Martins, A.P.; Claro, R.M. Analysing persuasive marketing of ultra-processed foods on Brazilian television. Int. J. Public Health 2020, 65, 1067–1077.
  45. Scully, M.; Wakefield, M.; Niven, P.; Chapman, K.; Crawford, D.; Pratt, I.S.; Baur, L.A.; Flood, V.; Morley, B. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents’ food choices and eating behaviors. Appetite 2012, 58, 1–5.
  46. Smith, J. The contribution of infant food marketing to the obesogenic environment in Australia. Breastfeed Rev. 2007, 15, 23–35.
  47. Smith, R.; Kelly, B.; Yeatman, H.; Moore, C.; Baur, L.; King, L.; Boyland, E.; Chapman, K.; Hughes, C.; Bauman, A. Advertising Placement in Digital Game Design Influences Children’s Choices of Advertised Snacks: A Randomized Trial. J. Acad. Nutri. Diet. 2020, 120, 404–413.
  48. Seiders, K.; Petty, R.D. Obesity and the role of food marketing: A policy analysis of issues and remedies. J. Public Policy Mark. 2004, 23, 153–169.
  49. Zimmerman, F.J. Using Marketing Muscle to Sell Fat: The Rise of Obesity in the Modern Economy. Annu. Rev. Public Health 2011, 32, 285–306.
  50. TYEBJEE, T.T. Affirmative Disclosure of Nutrition Information and Consumers’ Food Preferences: A Review. J. Consum. Aff. 1979, 13, 206–223.
  51. Srivastava, B. Fast-food marketing and children’s fast-food consumption: A trigger to childhood obesity. Indian J. Public Health Res. Dev. 2019, 10, 173–177.
  52. Vecchio, M.G.; Ghidina, M.; Gulati, A.; Berchialla, P.; Paramesh, E.C.; Gregori, D. Measuring Brand Awareness as a Component of Eating Habits in Indian Children: The Development of the IBAI Questionnaire. Indian J. Pediatrics 2014, 81, 23–29.
  53. Stewart, J.F.; Guilkey, D.K. Estimating the health impact of industry infant food marketing practices in the Philippines. J. Dev. Stud. 2000, 36, 50–77.
  54. Tan, L.; Ng, S.H.; Omar, A.; Karupaiah, T. What’s on YouTube? A Case Study on Food and Beverage Advertising in Videos Targeted at Children on Social Media. Child. Obes. 2018, 14, 280–290.
  55. Tatlow-Golden, M.; Hennessy, E.; Dean, M.; Hollywood, L. Young children’s food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent’s diet. Appetite 2014, 80, 197–203.
  56. Von Tigerstrom, B. How Do International Trade Obligations Affect Policy Options for Obesity Prevention? Lessons from Recent Developments in Trade and Tobacco Control. Can. J. Diabetes 2013, 37, 182–188.
  57. Wootan, M.G.; Almy, J.; Ugalde, M.; Kaminski, M. How do nutrition guidelines compare for industry to market food and beverage products to children? World Health Organization nutrient profile standards versus the US children’s food and beverage advertising initiative. Child. Obes. 2019, 15, 194–199.
  58. Vecchio, R.; Cavallo, C. Increasing healthy food choices through nudges: A systematic review. Food Qual. Prefer. 2019, 78.
  59. Manfredo, M.R.; Sanders, D.R. Contract design: A note on cash settled futures. J. Agric. Food Ind. Organ. 2003, 1.
  60. Bruce, A.S.; Lim, S.-L.; Smith, T.R.; Cherry, J.B.C.; Black, W.R.; Davis, A.M.; Bruce, J.M. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children’s food choices. Appetite 2015, 93, 31–34.
  61. Aschemann-Witzel, J.; Perez-Cueto, F.J.; Niedzwiedzka, B.; Verbeke, W.; Bech-Larsen, T. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: A case study. BMC Public Health 2012, 12.
  62. Ayala, G.X.; Castro, I.A.; Pickrel, J.L.; Lin, S.-F.; Williams, C.B.; Madanat, H.; Jun, H.-J.; Zive, M. A cluster randomized trial to promote healthy menu items for children: The kids’ choice restaurant program. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1494.
  63. Charlton, E.L.; Kähkönen, L.A.; Sacks, G.; Cameron, A.J. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars. Prev. Med. 2015, 81, 168–173.
  64. Lam, C.C.V.; Ejlerskov, K.T.; White, M.; Adams, J. Voluntary policies on checkout foods and healthfulness of foods displayed at, or near, supermarket checkout areas: A cross-sectional survey. Public Health Nutr. 2018, 21, 3462–3468.
  65. Dixon, H.; Niven, P.; Scully, M.; Wakefield, M. Food marketing with movie character toys: Effects on young children’s preferences for unhealthy and healthier fast food meals. Appetite 2017, 117, 342–350.
  66. Dixon, H.; Scully, M.; Niven, P.; Kelly, B.; Chapman, K.; Donovan, R.; Martin, J.; Baur, L.A.; Crawford, D.; Wakefield, M. Effects of nutrient content claims, sports celebrity endorsements and premium offers on pre-adolescent children’s food preferences: Experimental research. Pediatric Obes. 2014, 9, e47–e57.
  67. Dixon, H.; Scully, M.; Wakefield, M.; Kelly, B.; Chapman, K.; Donovan, R. Parent’s responses to nutrient claims and sports celebrity endorsements on energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods: An experimental study. Public Health Nutr. 2010, 14, 1071–1079.
  68. Dixon, H.; Scully, M.; Wakefield, M.; Kelly, B.; Pettigrew, S. Community junior sport sponsorship: An online experiment assessing children’s responses to unhealthy food v. pro-health sponsorship options. Public Health Nutr. 2018, 21, 1176–1185.
  69. Dixon, H.; Scully, M.; Kelly, B.; Donovan, R.; Chapman, K.; Wakefield, M. Counter-Advertising May Reduce Parent’s Susceptibility to Front-of-Package Promotions on Unhealthy Foods. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav. 2014, 46, 467–474.
  70. Dixon, H.; Scully, M.; Kelly, B.; Chapman, K.; Wakefield, M. Can counter-advertising reduce pre-adolescent children’s susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods?: Experimental research. Soc. Sci. Med. 2014, 116, 211–219.
  71. García, A.L.; Morillo-Santander, G.; Parrett, A.; Mutoro, A.N. Confused health and nutrition claims in food marketing to children could adversely affect food choice and increase risk of obesity. Arch. Dis. Child. 2019, 104, 541–546.
  72. Elliott, C. Marketing foods to children: Are we asking the right questions? Child. Obes. 2012, 8, 191–194.
  73. Bernhardt, A.M.; Wilking, C.; Gilbert-Diamond, D.; Emond, J.A.; Sargent, J.D. Children’s recall of fast food television advertising-testing the adequacy of food marketing regulation. PLoS ONE 2015, 10.
  74. Austin, E.W.; Austin, B.W.; French, B.F.; Cohen, M.A. The Effects of a Nutrition Media Literacy Intervention on Parents’ and Youths’ Communication about Food. J. Health Commun. 2018, 23, 190–199.
  75. Batada, A.; Wootan, M.G. Nickelodeon Markets Nutrition-Poor Foods to Children. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2007, 33, 48–50.
  76. Austin, E.W.; Austin, B.W.; Kaiser, C.K. Effects of Family-Centered Media Literacy Training on Family Nutrition Outcomes. Prev. Sci. 2020, 21, 308–318.
  77. Baldwin, H.J.; Freeman, B.; Kelly, B. Like and share: Associations between social media engagement and dietary choices in children. Public Health Nutr. 2018, 21, 3210–3215.
  78. Avianty, S.; Khusun, H.; Bardosono, S.; Februhartanty, J.; Worsley, A. Exposure and approval of food marketing strategies: A mixed methods study among household food providers in Jakarta. Malays. J. Nutr. 2019, 25, S47–S62.
  79. Boyland, E.J.; Whalen, R. Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: Review of recent prevalence and impact data. Pediatric Diabetes 2015, 16, 331–337.
  80. Bruce, A.S.; Pruitt, S.W.; Ha, O.-R.; Cherry, J.B.C.; Smith, T.R.; Bruce, J.M.; Lim, S.-L. The Influence of Televised Food Commercials on Children’s Food Choices: Evidence from Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activations. J. Pediatr. 2016, 177, 27–32.e1.
  81. Neyens, E.; Smits, T. Seeing is doing. The implicit effect of TV cooking shows on children’s use of ingredients. Appetite 2017, 116, 559–567.
  82. Ustjanauskas, A.E.; Harris, J.L.; Schwartz, M.B. Food and beverage advertising on children’s web sites. Pediatr. Obes. 2014, 9, 362–372.
  83. Vassallo, A.J.; Kelly, B.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Z.; Young, S.; Freeman, B. Junk food marketing on instagram: Content analysis. J. Med. Internet Res. 2018, 20.
  84. Choi, H.; Springston, J.K. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: Comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories. J. Health Commun. 2014, 19, 1047–1063.
  85. Stasi, A.; Songa, G.; Mauri, M.; Ciceri, A.; Diotallevi, F.; Nardone, G.; Russo, V. Neuromarketing empirical approaches and food choice: A systematic review. Food Res. Int. 2018, 108, 650–664.
  86. Lowe, M.; Ringler, C.; Haws, K. An overture to overeating: The cross-modal effects of acoustic pitch on food preferences and serving behavior. Appetite 2018, 123, 128–134.
  87. Musicus, A.; Tal, A.; Wansink, B. Eyes in the Aisles: Why Is Cap’n Crunch Looking Down at My Child? Environ. Behav. 2015, 47, 715–733.
  88. Nyilasy, G.; Lei, J.; Nagpal, A.; Tan, J. Colour correct: The interactive effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes and food category healthiness on health perceptions. Public Health Nutr. 2016, 19, 2122–2127.
  89. Ziv, N. Musical flavor: The effect of background music and presentation order on taste. Eur. J. Mark. 2018, 52, 1485–1504.
  90. Jones, S.C.; Kervin, L. An experimental study on the effects of exposure to magazine advertising on children’s food choices. Public Health Nutr. 2011, 14, 1337–1344.
  91. King, L.; Hill, A.J. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: Effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children. Appetite 2008, 51, 194–197.
  92. Cairns, G. A critical review of evidence on the sociocultural impacts of food marketing and policy implications. Appetite 2019, 136, 193–207.
  93. Campbell, K.J.; Crawford, D.A.; Hesketh, K.D. Australian parents’ views on their 5-6-year-old children’s food choices. Health Promot. Int. 2007, 22, 11–18.
  94. Haynes, P.; Podobsky, S. Guilt-free food consumption: One of your five ideologies a day. J. Consum. Mark. 2016, 33, 202–212.
  95. Just, D.R.; Payne, C.R. Obesity: Can behavioral economics help? Ann. Behav. Med. 2009, 38, S47–S55.
  96. Baah Annor, P. Smallholder farmers’ compliance with GlobalGAP standard: The case of Ghana. Emerald Emerg. Mark. Case Stud. 2018, 8.
  97. Cao, Y.J.; Cranfield, J.; Chen, C.; Widowski, T. Heterogeneous informational and attitudinal impacts on consumer preferences for eggs from welfare enhanced cage systems. Food Policy 2020.
  98. Cheng, L.; Yin, C.; Chien, H. Demand for milk quantity and safety in urban China: Evidence from Beijing and Harbin. Aust. J. Agric. Resour. Econ. 2015, 59, 275–287.
  99. Bryła, P. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers. Appetite 2016, 105, 737–746.
  100. Martinho, V.J.P.D. Output Impacts of the Single Payment Scheme in Portugal: A Regression with Spatial Effects. Outlook Agric. 2015, 44, 109–118.
  101. Martinho, V.J.P.D. Insights from over 30 years of common agricultural policy in Portugal. Outlook Agric. 2017, 46, 223–229.
  102. Bauman, A.; Thilmany, D.; Jablonski, B.B.R. Evaluating scale and technical efficiency among farms and ranches with a local market orientation. Renew. Agric. Food Syst. 2019, 34, 198–206.
  103. Bonetti, E.; Mattiacci, A.; Simoni, M. Communication patterns to address the consumption of PDO products. Br. Food J. 2019, 122, 390–403.
  104. Kangile, R.J.; Mgeni, C.P.; Mpenda, Z.T.; Sieber, S. The determinants of farmers’ choice of markets for staple food commodities in Dodoma and Morogoro, Tanzania. Agriculture 2020, 10, 142.
  105. Morgan, E.H.; Severs, M.M.; Hanson, K.L.; McGuirt, J.; Becot, F.; Wang, W.; Kolodinsky, J.; Sitaker, M.; Pitts, S.B.J.; Ammerman, A.; et al. Gaining and maintaining a competitive edge: Evidence from CSA members and farmers on local food marketing strategies. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2177.
  106. Neill, C.L.; Holcomb, R.B.; Lusk, J.L. Estimating potential beggar-thy-neighbor effects of state labeling programs. Agribusiness 2020, 36, 3–19.
  107. Murphy, A.J. Farmers’ markets as retail spaces. Int. J. Retail Disrtib. Manag. 2011, 39, 582–597.
  108. Remar, D.; Campbell, J.; DiPietro, R.B. The impact of local food marketing on purchase decision and willingness to pay in a foodservice setting. J. Foodserv. Bus. Res. 2016, 19, 89–108.
  109. Plakias, Z.T.; Demko, I.; Katchova, A.L. Direct marketing channel choices among US farmers: Evidence from the Local Food Marketing Practices Survey. Renew. Agric. Food Syst. 2020, 35, 475–489.
  110. Ortega, D.L.; Chen, M.; Wang, H.H.; Shimokawa, S. Emerging markets for U.S. Pork in China: Experimental evidence from mainland and Hong Kong consumers. J. Agric. Resour. Econ. 2017, 42, 275–290.
  111. Sánchez-Navarro, J.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.; Hernández-Espallardo, M. Antecedents of opportunism in agri-food cooperatives. CIRIEC Esp. Rev. Econ. Publica Soc. Coop. 2019, 111–136.
  112. Vassalos, M.; Lim, K.H. Farmers’ willingness to pay for various features of electronic food marketing platforms. Int. Food Agribus. Manag. Rev. 2016, 19, 131–149.
  113. Guilkey, D.K.; Stewart, J.F. Infant feeding patterns and the marketing of infant foods in the Philippines. Econ. Dev. Cult. Chang. 1995, 43, 369–399.
  114. Hasnah Hassan, S. Consumption of functional food model for Malay Muslims in Malaysia. J. Islam. Mark. 2011, 2, 104–124.
  115. Ballco, P.; De Magistris, T. Spanish consumer purchase behaviour and stated preferences for yoghurts with nutritional and health claims. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2742.
  116. Hawkes, C. Sales promotions and food consumptionnure. Nutr. Rev. 2009, 67, 333–342.
  117. Bibeau, W.S.; Saksvig, B.I.; Gittelsohn, J.; Williams, S.; Jones, L.; Young, D.R. Perceptions of the food marketing environment among African American teen girls and adults. Appetite 2012, 58, 396–399.
  118. Bragg, M.A.; Eby, M.; Arshonsky, J.; Bragg, A.; Ogedegbe, G. Comparison of online marketing techniques on food and beverage companies’ websites in six countries. Glob. Health 2017, 13.
  119. Bucher, T.; Hartmann, C.; Rollo, M.E.; Collins, C.E. What is nutritious snack food? A comparison of expert and layperson assessments. Nutrients 2017, 9, 874.
  120. Chalak, A.; Abiad, M. How effective is information provision in shaping food safety related purchasing decisions? Evidence from a choice experiment in Lebanon. Food Qual. Prefer. 2012, 26, 81–92.
  121. Viscecchia, R.; Nocella, G.; De Devitiis, B.; Bimbo, F.; Carlucci, D.; Seccia, A.; Nardone, G. Consumers’ trade-off between nutrition and health claims under regulation 1924/2006: Insights from a choice experiment analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2881.
  122. Contini, C.; Casini, L.; Stefan, V.; Romano, C.; Juhl, H.J.; Lähteenmäki, L.; Scozzafava, G.; Grunert, K.G. Some like it healthy: Can socio-demographic characteristics serve as predictors for a healthy food choice? Food Qual. Prefer. 2015, 46, 103–112.
  123. Gama, A.P.; Adhikari, K.; Hoisington, D.A. Factors influencing food choices of Malawian consumers: A food choice questionnaire approach. J. Sens. Stud. 2018, 33.
  124. Kumanyika, S.K. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: Ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol. Behav. 2008, 94, 61–70.
  125. Chapman, K.; Nicholas, P.; Banovic, D.; Supramaniam, R. The extent and nature of food promotion directed to children in Australian supermarkets. Health Promot. Int. 2006, 21, 331–339.
  126. Huang, Y.; Pomeranz, J.L.; Cash, S.B. Effective National Menu Labeling Requires Accuracy and Enforcement. J. Acad. Nutri. Diet. 2018, 118, 989–993.
  127. Elliott, C. Parents’ choice: Examining parent perspectives on regulation and child-targeted supermarket foods. Food Cult. Soc. 2013, 16, 437–455.
  128. Jenkin, G.; Madhvani, N.; Signal, L.; Bowers, S. A systematic review of persuasive marketing techniques to promote food to children on television. Obes. Rev. 2014, 15, 281–293.
  129. Seo, S.; Yun, N.; Kim, O.Y. Destination food image and intention to eat destination foods: A view from Korea. Curr. Issues Tour. 2017, 20, 135–156.
  130. Boccia, F.; Malgeri Manzo, R.; Covino, D. Consumer behavior and corporate social responsibility: An evaluation by a choice experiment. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Environ. Manag. 2019, 26, 97–105.
  131. Boccia, F.; Sarnacchiaro, P. Chi-squared automatic interaction detector analysis on a choice experiment: An evaluation of responsible initiatives on consumers’ purchasing behavior. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Environ. Manag. 2020, 27, 1143–1151.
  132. Chandon, P.; Wansink, B. Does food marketing need to make us fat? A review and solutions. Nutr. Rev. 2012, 70, 571–593.
  133. Disantis, K.I.; Grier, S.A.; Oakes, J.M.; Kumanyika, S.K. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women. Appetite 2014, 77, 104–112.
  134. Kim, R.B. Consumer Attitude of Risk and Benefits toward Genetically Modified (GM) Foods in South Korea: Implications for Food Policy. Eng. Econ. 2012, 23, 189–199.
  135. Kline, S. Countering children’s sedentary lifestyles an evaluative study of a media-risk education approach. Childhood 2005, 12, 239–258.
  136. Lai Yeung, W.-L.T. Combating deceptive advertisements and labelling on food products—An exploratory study on the perceptions of teachers. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 2003, 27, 235.
  137. Lai Yeung Wai-ling, T. Combating deceptive advertisements and labelling on food products—An exploratory study on the perceptions of teachers. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 2004, 28, 117–126.
  138. Truman, E.; Elliott, C. Health-promoting skills for children: Evaluating the influence of a media literacy and food marketing intervention. Health Educ. J. 2020, 79, 431–445.
  139. Putnam, M.M.; Cotto, C.E.; Calvert, S.L. Character Apps for Children’s Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns. Games Health J. 2018, 7, 116–120.
  140. Qutteina, Y.; Hallez, L.; Mennes, N.; De Backer, C.; Smits, T. What Do Adolescents See on Social Media? A Diary Study of Food Marketing Images on Social Media. Front. Psychol. 2019, 10.
  141. Sivathanu, B. Food marketing and its impact on adolescents’ food choices. Ind. J. Mark. 2017, 47, 46–60.
  142. Harris, J.L.; LoDolce, M.E.; Schwartz, M.B. Encouraging big food to do the right thing for children’s health: A case study on using research to improve marketing of sugary cereals. Crit. Pub. Health 2015, 25, 320–332.
  143. Harris, J.L.; Schwartz, M.B.; Ustjanauskas, A.; Ohri-Vachaspati, P.; Brownell, K.D. Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children’s breakfast-eating behavior. Pediatrics 2011, 127, 71–76.
  144. Harris, J.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Schwartz, M.B.; Brownell, K.D. Nutrition-related claims on children’s cereals: What do they mean to parents and do they influence willingness to buy? Public Health Nutr. 2011, 14, 2207–2212.
  145. Liu, P.J.; Wisdom, J.; Roberto, C.A.; Liu, L.J.; Ubel, P.A. Using behavioral economics to design more effective food policies to address obesity. Appl. Econ. Perspect. Policy 2014, 36, 6–24.
  146. Mandlik, M.; Oetzel, J.G.; Kadirov, D. Obesity and health care interventions: Substantiating a multi-modal challenge through the lens of grounded theory. Health Promot. J. Aust. 2020.
  147. Ravasco, P.; Ferreira, C.; Camilo, M.E. Food for health: Primary-care prevention and public health relevance of the medical role. Acta Med. Port. 2011, 24, 783–790.
  148. Maziak, W.; Ward, K.D.; Stockton, M.B. Childhood obesity: Are we missing the big picture? Obes. Rev. 2008, 9, 35–42.
  149. Kraak, V.I.; Swinburn, B.; Lawrence, M.; Harrison, P. A Q methodology study of stakeholders’ views about accountability for promoting healthy food environments in England through the Responsibility Deal Food Network. Food Policy 2014, 49, 207–218.
  150. Jiang, H.; Yang, Z.; Sun, P.; Xu, M. When does social exclusion increase or decrease food self-regulation? The moderating role of time orientation. J. Consum. Behav. 2018, 17, 34–46.
  151. Díaz, E.R.; Ivanic, A.S.; Durazo-Watanabe, E. A study of food retailing: How does consumer price sensitivity vary across food categories and retailer types in Mexico? Contad. Adm. 2020, 65.
  152. Cronin, J.M.; McCarthy, M.B.; Collins, A.M. Covert distinction: How hipsters practice food-based resistance strategies in the production of identity. Consum. Mark. Cult. 2014, 17, 2–28.
  153. Kumcu, A.; Woolverton, A.E. Feeding Fido: Changing Consumer Food Preferences Bring Pets to the Table. J. Food Prod. Mark. 2015, 21, 213–230.
  154. Von Meyer-Höfer, M.; von der Wense, V.; Spiller, A. Characterising convinced sustainable food consumers. Br. Food J. 2015, 117, 1082–1104.
  155. Veeck, A.; Yu, F.G.; Yu, H.; Veeck, G.; Gentry, J.W. Influences on food choices of urban chinese teenagers. Young Consum. 2014, 15, 296–311.
  156. Hamlin, R.P.; Lindsay, S.; Insch, A. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing? Appetite 2012, 58, 256–264.
  157. Carsana, L.; Jolibert, A. The effects of expertise and brand schematicity on the perceived importance of choice criteria: A Bordeaux wine investigation. J. Prod. Brand Manag. 2017, 26, 80–90.
  158. Ries, A.; Ries, L. The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding, 1st ed.; Harper Business: New York, NY, USA, 2002; ISBN 978-0-06-000773-7.
  159. Fernqvist, F.; Ekelund, L. Credence and the effect on consumer liking of food—A review. Food Qual. Prefer. 2014, 32, 340–353.
  160. Foscht, T.; Maloles, C.; Schloffer, J.; Swoboda, B.; Chia, S.-L. Exploring the impact of customer satisfaction on food retailers’ evolution: Managerial lessons from Austria. J. Int. Food Agribus. Mark. 2009, 21, 67–82.
  161. Morganosky, M.A.; Cude, B.J. Large format retailing in the US: A consumer experience perspective. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 2000, 7, 215–222.
  162. Sheikhesmaeili, S.; Hazbavi, S. Model construction of engagement and outcomes in consumers food life: Evidence from chain stores customer. Br. Food J. 2019, 121, 218–239.
  163. Lonier, T. Alchemy in Eden: Entrepreneurialism, branding, and food marketing in the United States, 1880-1920. Enterp. Soc. 2010, 11, 695–708.
  164. McGale, L.S.; Halford, J.C.G.; Harrold, J.A.; Boyland, E.J. The Influence of Brand Equity Characters on Children’s Food Preferences and Choices. J. Pediatrics 2016, 177, 33–38.