Electrospinning Nanofibers Based Artificial Skins: Comparison
Please note this is a comparison between Version 2 by Catherine Yang and Version 1 by Yanchao Mao.

Artificial skin, also known as bioinspired electronic skin (e-skin), refers to intelligent wearable electronics that imitate the tactile sensory function of human skin and identify the detected changes in external information through different electrical signals. Flexible e-skin can achieve a wide range of functions such as accurate detection and identification of pressure, strain, and temperature, which has greatly extended their application potential in the field of healthcare monitoring and human-machine interaction (HMI). Compared with other traditional electronic sensors, artificial electronic skin can meet the demand of human health monitoring and HMI when it is used in seamless and stable contact with human skin and obtains low impedance physiological signals. Therefore, it has higher requirements on material permeability, tensile resistance, and biocompatibility. Due to its high porosity, high toughness, and small mass, electrospun nanofiber-based bioinspired artificial skins with high flexibility and a three-dimensional porous mesh structure are often considered as the first choice.

  • artificial skin
  • electrospun nanofiber
  • healthcare monitoring

1. Introduction

The advancement of wearable electronics has been attracting more and more attention recently due to their ability to simulate the haptic perception of human skin to identify changes in detected external information through different electrical signals [1,2,3,4,5][1][2][3][4][5]. Unlike traditional rigid electronic devices that cannot maintain polymorphic contact with the human body, wearable electronic products can serve for health management or providing other smart functions, which greatly enrich people’s daily needs. Among them, bioinspired artificial skin is considered to be an important component of wearable electronic devices that can be affixed to the surface of human muscles or joints to collect physiological signals, with promising applications in the areas of real-time healthcare monitoring and human-machine interaction (HMI) [6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Therefore, the design of artificial skin needs to be considered on skin-like flexible materials, mainly focusing on the stable monitoring of artificial skin in use, wearing comfort, and physical and chemical properties suitable for human skin. Electrospinning-based flexible devices provide a practical path for human skin construction based on such flexible material substrates [14,15,16,17,18][14][15][16][17][18].
Typically, electrospinning is a particular method of fiber manufacturing that uses a solution or melt of polymer for jet spinning under a high voltage electric field, which produces nanometer diameter polymer fibers with flexibility and continuity. The idea of electrospinning was conceived in 1600 by William Gilbert, who observed in his research that water droplets would form cones in an electric field [19]. In 1887, Charles V. Boys used a viscous liquid to pull out fibers while on the edge of an insulated dish connected to a power source, and the method of extracting fibers from a viscoelastic liquid under strong electric field conditions was first reported. In 1902, the electrospinning technology was patented by John Cooley and William Morton, respectively, and the prototype of the electrospinning device was determined [20]. From 1964–1969, a number of papers were published by Jeffrey Taylor, mathematically describing and simulating the process of changing a viscous polymer solution from a sphere to a cone at an electrospinning nozzle under the effects of a high-voltage electric field, achieving a breakthrough of electrospinning technology [21,22,23,24][21][22][23][24]. However, electrospinning technology development has stalled because of the absence of microscopic-scale characterization tools. It was not until the beginning of this century with the popularization of electron microscopy that the technology began to receive more and more attention from researchers, and the performance and applications were developed as never before. Through the process of developing new strategies to control structures and performances of electrospun nanofibers, electrospinning technology had already been used extensively in the area of bio-inspired artificial skin.
Artificial skin, as bionic human skin, needs to meet the characteristics of the high elasticity and breathability of human skin [25]. In the electrospinning process, polymer solution jets are stretched in a strong electric field to form nanofibers ranging from a few nanometers to 500 nanometers in diameter, which are then deposited on a collection plate to form a nanofiber film [26,27,28][26][27][28]. Compared with the thin film type flexible substrate material, the mesh structure of the nanofiber membrane makes it flexible and breathable, with a great ratio of surface area and thermal stability, which can better meet the material requirements of artificial skin [29,30,31,32,33][29][30][31][32][33]. The performance of electrospun nanofibers can be further enhanced by adding different nano-fillers to develop artificial skin with different structures and different functions [34,35,36,37,38,39][34][35][36][37][38][39].

2. Healthcare Monitoring

With the advancement of flexible electronics, electrospun nanofiber-based artificial skin is increasingly being used for human health monitoring [151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]. Comfortable, accurate, and real-time collection of physiological electrical signals is important for determining human health conditions. After prolonged conformal contact with human skin or joints, the ability to avoid elevated impedance caused by sweat and to withstand repeated mechanical deformation are crucial issues that need to be addressed [163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59]. Therefore, a flexible conductor with high permeability and stretchability (liquid-metal fiber mat, LMFM) was developed by Zheng et al. in 2021 [171][60]. The preparation is based on the coating of liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium alloy, EGaln) on an electrospun fiber mat (styrene-butadiene-styrene, SBS). After the pre-stretching process, the liquid metal between the elastomeric SBS nanofibers formed a lattice-like structure and the LMFM maintained a high permeability to both gases and liquids. In tensile tests, EGaIn-SBS can achieve over 1800% stretching while the conductor impedance remains at a low level without significant change during the process, showing ultra-high conductivity and electrical stability.
In process for wearable devices based on wet heterostructure electrospinning technology [172][61]. Electrospinning micro-pyramidal arrays (EMPAs) with unique structures were constructed using a far-field electrospinning device with a charged grounded aluminum foil with bumps as the collector. PVDF was used as the proof-of-concept material to fabricate the EMPAs-based films, and the SEM images showed a uniform planar distribution of the micro-pyramidal structure on the film, and typical features of the pyramidal structure were shown with the tilted three prongs intersecting at the apex. Since the micro-pyramid structure microfibers constructed the permeable network, the film with EMPAs was ultra-thin, ultra-light, breathable, and suitable to be adopted as the artificial skin. Therefore, a piezoelectric capacitive sensor based on EMPAs was developed to collect pulse signals in real time for human health monitoring with high permeability and sensitivity. Electrospun barium titanate/polyvinylidene fluoride (BTO/PVDF) nanofibers are modified mainly by using polydopamine (PDA). Groups of DA formed cross-links with the BTO nanoparticles due to van der Waals forces as well as attached to the PVDF polymer fibers, encasing the protruding BTO nanoparticles and making the fiber surface smooth. In addition, the piezoelectric performance had been greatly improved. 
In addition to myoelectric and pulse signals, electrospinning nanofiber-based artificial skin can also be used for several other health monitoring applications. For instance, Wang et al. developed a TENG-based nanofiber electronic skin (SANES) for respiratory monitoring and diagnosis during sleep [174][62], which was characterized by good permeability, high sensitivity, and was easy to wear. SANES is mainly assembled by the top encapsulation layer, middle functional layer, and bottom substrate layer, and all three nanofiber functional layers are prepared by electrospinning. The PA66 and PAN sandwiched in the middle were used as electrodes with a layer of Au of 100 nm thickness at the surface, respectively. The upper and lower parts are protected from electrode interference by PA66 and PAN as cover layers, respectively. The device is placed on the abdomen of the test subject, which monitors the occurrence of OSAHS during sleep based on the movement of the abdominal skin during breathing and records the number of apneas and hypoventilation state. Classifying or alerting according to the severity has great application prospects in the area of personal sleep health monitoring. In addition to directly collecting physiological electrical signals for real-time monitoring of the human body, electrospun nanofiber-based devices can also monitor and provide early warnings of human health and safety by establishing medical monitoring systems. In 2022, Yu et al. prepared a triboelectric energy harvesting sensor (TEHS) using triboelectric fiber films made by electrospinning technology and built a medical monitoring system by multiple TEHS devices [175][63].

3. Intelligent HMI

As artificial intelligence emerges and develops, artificial skin plays a crucial role not only for medical monitoring, but also for intelligent HMI [176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190,191][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79]. Besides the monitoring of physiological parameters and the movement status of the human body, multifunctional artificial skin based on electrospun nanofibers can be used for mechanical control [192,193][80][81], on-demand therapy [194[82][83],195], and gesture recognition and intelligent control [196,197,198,199,200,201,202,203,204,205,206,207][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95]. In 2022, a wearable flexible electrode (nano-liquid metal (LM)-based highly robust stretchable electrode, NHSE) that can be used for game control and thermal therapy was proposed by Li et al. [208][96].
Different sensors have different working mechanisms; common flexible sensors used for HMI are not only pressure sensors, but also humidity sensors. During the COVID-19 epidemic, a flexible non-contact sensing array based on humidity sensing was reported by Yang et al. [210][97]. The single sensor (MG/PA66 humidity sensor, MPHS) is a composite material made of two-dimensional graphene flakes embedded in an electrospun PA66 nanofiber by ultrasonic treatment. The characteristics of the electrospun nanofiber network give the composite a physical structure with a large ratio surface area, in addition to the PA66 chemical structure rich in water-absorbing functional groups, ensuring a high response to humidity. MPHS can be arranged to form a humidity sensing array for HMI in non-contact mode.
In addition to remote control, pressure detection, and game control, artificial skin made of electrospun nanofibers has extensive applications in areas such as healthcare and fire alarms. For example, Zhang et al. proposed a ventilatable artificial skin with real-time temperature monitoring and the ability to perform anti-infection heating therapy in 2019 [211][98]. The device consists of an electrospun moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOX) nanofiber network with high toughness, gas permeability, and stability that can be used as a flexible heater when coated with a thermosensitive polymer film printed with a conductive pattern. When SGNI is exposed to a high temperature environment, the intelligent fire alarm system will sound an alarm and send an alarm message once the temperature reaches the alarm threshold. By using the ability of SGNI to respond to fire hazards, a concept was developed that could sense the position of the fire source and then control the robot to make evasive maneuvers in actual hazardous HMI situations. Once the location of the robot installed on the SGNI skin is close to the fire source, the SGNI can sense the fire temperature and location within 6s and send signals back to the control unit to command the robot to actively avoid hazards and make a move away from the fire source, which provides highly promising applications in the area of secure and intelligent HMI.


  1. Cheng, T.; Zhang, Y.; Lai, W.-Y.; Huang, W. Stretchable Thin-Film Electrodes for Flexible Electronics with High Deformability and Stretchability. Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 3349–3376.
  2. Zhang, Y.; Zhang, T.; Huang, Z.; Yang, J. A New Class of Electronic Devices Based on Flexible Porous Substrates. Adv. Sci. 2022, 9, 2105084.
  3. Kang, S.; Zhao, K.; Yu, D.-G.; Zheng, X.; Huang, C. Advances in Biosensing and Environmental Monitoring Based on Electrospun Nanofibers. Adv. Fiber Mater. 2022, 4, 404–435.
  4. Ding, Y.; Hou, H.; Zhao, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Fong, H. Electrospun polyimide nanofibers and their applications. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2016, 61, 67–103.
  5. Kimmel, D.W.; Leblanc, G.; Meschievitz, M.E.; Cliffel, D.E. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 685–707.
  6. Leng, Z.; Zhu, P.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Li, P.; Huang, W.; Li, B.; Jin, R.; Han, N.; Wu, J.; et al. Sebum-MembraneInspired Protein-Based Bioprotonic Hydrogel for Artificial Skin and Human-Machine Merging Interface. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2023, 33, 2211056.
  7. Yang, J.C.; Mun, J.; Kwon, S.Y.; Park, S.; Bao, Z.; Park, S. Electronic Skin: Recent Progress and Future Prospects for Skin-Attachable Devices for Health Monitoring, Robotics, and Prosthetics. Adv. Mater. 2019, 31, 1904765.
  8. Chortos, A.; Bao, Z. Skin-inspired electronic devices. Mater. Today 2014, 17, 321–331.
  9. Ahmed, F.E.; Lalia, B.S.; Hashaikeh, R. A review on electrospinning for membrane fabrication: Challenges and applications. Desalination 2015, 356, 15–30.
  10. Liu, D.; Zhu, P.; Zhang, F.; Li, P.; Huang, W.; Li, C.; Han, N.; Mu, S.; Zhou, H.; Mao, Y. Intrinsically Stretchable Polymer Semiconductor Based Electronic Skin for Multiple Perceptions of Force, Temperature, and Visible Light. Nano Res. 2023, 16, 1196–1204.
  11. Zhu, M.; Li, J.; Yu, J.; Li, Z.; Ding, B. Superstable and Intrinsically Self-Healing Fibrous Membrane with Bionic Confined Protective Structure for Breathable Electronic Skin. Angew. Chem. 2022, 134, e202200226.
  12. Persano, L.; Dagdeviren, C.; Su, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Girardo, S.; Pisignano, D.; Huang, Y.; Rogers, J.A. High performance piezoelectric devices based on aligned arrays of nanofibers of poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene). Nat. Commun. 2013, 4, 1633.
  13. Chen, J.; Huang, X.; Sun, B.; Jiang, P. Highly Thermally Conductive Yet Electrically Insulating Polymer/Boron Nitride Nanosheets Nanocomposite Films for Improved Thermal Management Capability. ACS Nano 2019, 13, 337–345.
  14. Liu, X.; Xu, H.; Zhang, M.; Yu, D.-G. Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing: Review. Membranes 2021, 11, 770.
  15. Yang, M.; Cheng, Y.F.; Yue, Y.; Chen, Y.; Gao, H.; Li, L.; Cai, B.; Liu, W.J.; Wang, Z.Y.; Guo, H.Z.; et al. High-performance flexible pressure sensor with a self-healing function for tactile feedback. Adv. Sci. 2022, 9, 2200507.
  16. Inagaki, M.; Yang, Y.; Kang, F. Carbon Nanofibers Prepared via Electrospinning. Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 2547–2566.
  17. Si, Y.; Yu, J.; Tang, X.; Ge, J.; Ding, B. Ultralight nanofibre-assembled cellular aerogels with superelasticity and multifunctionality. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 5802.
  18. Wang, L.; Chen, Y.; Lin, L.; Wang, H.; Huang, X.; Xue, H.; Gao, J. Highly Stretchable, Anti-Corrosive and Wearable Strain Sensors Based on the PDMS/CNTs Decorated Elastomer Nanofiber Composite. J. Chem. Eng. 2019, 362, 89–98.
  19. Kenry; Lim, C.T. Nanofiber technology: Current status and emerging developments. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2017, 70, 1–17.
  20. Thenmozhi, S.; Dharmaraj, N.; Kadirvelu, K.; Kim, H.Y. Electrospun nanofibers: New generation materials for advanced applications. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 2017, 217, 36–48.
  21. Barhoum, A.; Pal, K.; Rahier, H.; Uludag, H.; Kim, I.S.; Bechelany, M. Nanofibers as new-generation materials: From spinning and nano-spinning fabrication techniques to emerging applications. Appl. Mater. Today 2019, 17, 1–35.
  22. Sun, B.; Long, Y.Z.; Zhang, H.D.; Li, M.M.; Duvail, J.L.; Jiang, X.Y.; Yin, H.L. Advances in three-dimensional nanofibrous macrostructures via electrospinning. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2014, 39, 862–890.
  23. Xue, J.; Xie, J.; Liu, W.; Xia, Y. Electrospun Nanofibers: New Concepts, Materials, and Applications. Acc. Chem. Res. 2017, 50, 1976–1987.
  24. Holland, C.; Numata, K.; Rnjak-Kovacina, J.; Seib, F.P. The Biomedical Use of Silk: Past, Present, Future. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2019, 8, 1800465.
  25. Ziai, Y.; Petronella, F.; Rinoldi, C.; Nakielski, P.; Zakrzewska, A.; Kowalewski, T.A.; Augustyniak, W.; Li, X.; Calogero, A.; Sabała, I.; et al. Chameleon-inspired multifunctional plasmonic nanoplatforms for biosensing applications. NPG Asia Mater. 2022, 14, 18.
  26. Luo, C.J.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Stride, E.; Pelan, E.; Edirisinghe, M. Electrospinning versus fibre production methods: From specifics to technological convergence. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 4708.
  27. Wang, C.; Wang, J.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, Z.; Liu, X.; Liu, H.; Zhang, J.; Ding, J. Fabrication of Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers with Diverse Morphologies. Molecules 2019, 24, 834.
  28. Li, Y.; Zhu, J.; Cheng, H.; Li, G.; Cho, H.; Jiang, M.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, X. Developments of Advanced Electrospinning Techniques: A Critical Review. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2021, 6, 2100410.
  29. Keirouz, A.; Chung, M.; Kwon, J.; Fortunato, G.; Radacsi, N. 2D and 3D electrospinning technologies for the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering: A review. WIREs Nanomed. Nanotechnol. 2020, 12, e1626.
  30. Du, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, P.; Yu, D.G.; Ge, R. Electrospun nanofiber-based glucose sensors for glucose detection. Front. Chem. 2022, 10, 944428.
  31. Cheng, S.; Lou, Z.; Zhang, L.; Guo, H.; Wang, Z.; Guo, C.; Fukuda, K.; Ma, S.; Wang, G.; Someya, T.; et al. Ultrathin Hydrogel Films toward Breathable Skin-Integrated Electronics. Adv. Mater. 2022, 35, 2206793.
  32. Ding, J.; Zhang, J.; Li, J.; Li, D.; Xiao, C.; Xiao, H.; Yang, H.; Zhuang, X.; Chen, X. Electrospun polymer biomaterials. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2019, 90, 1–34.
  33. Guan, X.; Xu, B.; Wu, M.; Jing, T.; Yang, Y.; Gao, Y. Breathable, washable and wearable woven-structured triboelectric nanogenerators utilizing electrospun nanofibers for biomechanical energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. Nano Energy 2021, 80, 105549.
  34. Zhang, M.; Song, W.; Tang, Y.; Xu, X.; Huang, Y.; Yu, D. Polymer-Based Nanofiber–Nanoparticle Hybrids and Their Medical Applications. Polymers 2022, 14, 351.
  35. Liu, H.; Jiang, W.; Yang, Z.; Chen, X.; Yu, D.; Shao, J. Hybrid films prepared from a combination of electrospinning and casting for offering a dual-phase drug release. Polymers 2022, 14, 2132.
  36. Zhang, C.-L.; Yu, S.-H. Nanoparticles meet electrospinning: Recent advances and future prospects. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2014, 43, 4423.
  37. Jiang, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Yao, Y.; Lan, L.; Zhao, F.; Ye, Z.; Ying, Y.; Ping, J. All-electrospun flexible triboelectric nanogenerator based on metallic MXene nanosheets. Nano Energy 2019, 59, 268–276.
  38. Li, Y.; Zhou, B.; Zheng, G.; Liu, X.; Li, T.; Yan, C.; Cheng, C.; Dai, K.; Liu, C.; Shen, C.; et al. Continuously prepared highly conductive and stretchable SWNT/MWNT synergistically composited electrospun thermoplastic polyurethane yarns for wearable sensing. J. Mater. Chem. C 2018, 6, 2258–2269.
  39. Wu, D.; Xie, X.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Hou, C.; Sun, X.; Yang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Kimura, H.; Du, W. Embedding NiS Nanoflakes in Electrospun Carbon Fibers Containing NiS Nanoparticles for Hybrid Supercapacitors. Chem. Eng. J. 2022, 446, 137262.
  40. Araldi da Silva, B.; de Sousa Cunha, R.; Valério, A.; De Noni Junior, A.; Hotza, D.; Gómez González, S.Y. Electrospinning of cellulose using ionic liquids: An overview on processing and applications. Eur. Polym. J. 2021, 147, 110283.
  41. Mirjalali, S.; Mahdavi Varposhti, A.; Abrishami, S.; Bagherzadeh, R.; Asadnia, M.; Huang, S.; Peng, S.; Wang, C.H.; Wu, S. A Review on Wearable Electrospun Polymeric Piezoelectric Sensors and Energy Harvesters. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2022, 308, 2200442.
  42. Qiu, J.; Yu, T.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Zhao, Y.; Du, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, L.; et al. A Bioinspired, Durable, and Nondisposable Transparent Graphene Skin Electrode for Electrophysiological Signal Detection. ACS Mater. Lett. 2020, 2, 999–1007.
  43. Cho, K.W.; Sunwoo, S.H.; Hong, Y.J.; Koo, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Baik, S.; Hyeon, T.; Kim, D.H. Soft Bioelectronics Based on Nanomaterials. Chem. Rev. 2022, 122, 5068–5143.
  44. Zhi, C.; Shi, S.; Si, Y.; Fei, B.; Huang, H.; Hu, J. Recent Progress of Wearable Piezoelectric Pressure Sensors Based on Nanofibers, Yarns, and Their Fabrics via Electrospinning. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2022, 8, 2201161.
  45. Huang, J.; Xie, G.; Wei, Q.; Su, Y.; Xu, X.; Jiang, Y. Degradable MXene-Doped Polylactic Acid Textiles for Wearable Biomonitoring. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2023, 15, 5600–5607.
  46. Liang, F.-C.; Ku, H.-J.; Cho, C.-J.; Chen, W.-C.; Lee, W.-Y.; Chen, W.-C.; Rwei, S.-P.; Borsali, R.; Kuo, C.-C. An intrinsically stretchable and ultrasensitive nanofiber-based resistive pressure sensor for wearable electronics. J. Mater. Chem. C 2020, 8, 5361–5369.
  47. Qi, K.; Wang, H.; You, X.; Tao, X.; Li, M.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, Y.; He, J.; Shao, W.; Cui, S. Core-sheath nanofiber yarn for textile pressure sensor with high pressure sensitivity and spatial tactile acuity. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2020, 561, 93–103.
  48. Yang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, P.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Xu, Y.; Gu, Y.; Qin, S.; Haick, H.; Wang, Y. Toward a new generation of permeable skin electronics. Nanoscale 2023, 15, 3051–3078.
  49. Wang, Y.; Yokota, T.; Someya, T. Electrospun nanofiber-based soft electronics. NPG Asia Mater. 2021, 13, 22.
  50. Sharifuzzaman, M.; Zahed, M.A.; Sharma, S.; Yoon, S.; Park, C.; Park, J.Y. Laser-Carbonized Mxene-Reinforced Hierarchical Nanofibers for Breathable and Reusable Electrophysiological E-Tattoos. In Proceedings of the 2021 21st International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers), Orlando, FL, USA, 20–24 June 2021; pp. 904–907.
  51. Sun, F.; Jiang, H.; Wang, H.; Zhong, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xing, Y.; Yu, M.; Feng, L.W.; Tang, Z.; Liu, J.; et al. Soft Fiber Electronics Based on Semiconducting Polymer. Chem. Rev. 2023, 123, 4693–4763.
  52. Jiang, N.; Li, H.; Hu, D.; Xu, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Han, X.; Zhao, G.; Chen, J.; Chang, X.; et al. Stretchable strain and temperature sensor based on fibrous polyurethane film saturated with ionic liquid. Compos. Commun. 2021, 27, 100845.
  53. Ding, S.; Lou, Y.; Niu, Z.; Wang, J.; Jin, X.; Ma, J.; Wang, B.; Li, X. A Highly Sensitive, Breathable, and Biocompatible Wearable Sensor Based on Nanofiber Membrane for Pressure and Humidity Monitoring. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2022, 307, 2200233.
  54. Li, B.; Luo, J.; Huang, X.; Lin, L.; Wang, L.; Hu, M.; Tang, L.; Xue, H.; Gao, J.; Mai, Y.-W. A highly stretchable, super-hydrophobic strain sensor based on polydopamine and graphene reinforced nanofiber composite for human motion monitoring. Compos. Part B Eng. 2020, 181, 107580.
  55. Zhou, Y.; Zhan, P.; Ren, M.; Zheng, G.; Dai, K.; Mi, L.; Liu, C.; Shen, C. Significant Stretchability Enhancement of a Crack-Based Strain Sensor Combined with High Sensitivity and Superior Durability for Motion Monitoring. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 7405–7414.
  56. Shi, S.; Wang, Y.; Meng, Q.; Lan, Z.; Liu, C.; Zhou, Z.; Sun, Q.; Shen, X. Conductive Cellulose-Derived Carbon Nanofibrous Membranes with Superior Softness for High-Resolution Pressure Sensing and Electrophysiology Monitoring. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2023, 15, 1903–1913.
  57. Li, Y.; Wang, S.; Xiao, Z.-C.; Yang, Y.; Deng, B.-W.; Yin, B.; Ke, K.; Yang, M.-B. Flexible TPU strain sensors with tunable sensitivity and stretchability by coupling AgNWs with rGO. J. Mater. Chem. C 2020, 8, 4040–4048.
  58. Qin, W.; Geng, J.; Lin, C.; Li, G.; Peng, H.; Xue, Y.; Zhou, B.; Liu, G. Flexible multifunctional TPU strain sensors with improved sensitivity and wide sensing range based on MXene/AgNWs. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 2023, 34, 564.
  59. Alam, M.M.; Lee, S.; Kim, M.; Han, K.S.; Cao, V.A.; Nah, J. Ultra-flexible nanofiber-based multifunctional motion sensor. Nano Energy 2020, 72, 104672.
  60. Ma, Z.; Huang, Q.; Xu, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Qiu, H.; Yang, Z.; Wang, C.; Chai, Y.; et al. Permeable superelastic liquid-metal fibre mat enables biocompatible and monolithic stretchable electronics. Nat. Mater. 2021, 20, 859–868.
  61. Zhang, J.H.; Li, Z.; Xu, J.; Li, J.; Yan, K.; Cheng, W.; Xin, M.; Zhu, T.; Du, J.; Chen, S.; et al. Versatile self-assembled electrospun micropyramid arrays for high-performance on-skin devices with minimal sensory interference. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 5839.
  62. Peng, X.; Dong, K.; Ning, C.; Cheng, R.; Yi, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sheng, F.; Wu, Z.; Wang, Z.L. All-Nanofiber Self-Powered Skin-Interfaced Real-Time Respiratory Monitoring System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Diagnosing. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 31, 2103559.
  63. Graham, S.A.; Patnam, H.; Manchi, P.; Paranjape, M.V.; Kurakula, A.; Yu, J.S. Biocompatible electrospun fibers-based triboelectric nanogenerators for energy harvesting and healthcare monitoring. Nano Energy 2022, 100, 107455.
  64. Yang, T.; Deng, W.; Chu, X.; Wang, X.; Hu, Y.; Fan, X.; Song, J.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, B.; Tian, G.; et al. Hierarchically Microstructure-Bioinspired Flexible Piezoresistive Bioelectronics. ACS Nano 2021, 15, 11555–11563.
  65. Gao, Z.; Xiao, X.; Carlo, A.D.; Yin, J.; Wang, Y.; Huang, L.; Tang, J.; Chen, J. Advances in Wearable Strain Sensors Based on Electrospun Fibers. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2023, 33, 2214265.
  66. Guo, H.; Wan, J.; Wu, H.; Wang, H.; Miao, L.; Song, Y.; Chen, H.; Han, M.; Zhang, H. Self-Powered Multifunctional Electronic Skin for a Smart Anti-Counterfeiting Signature System. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 22357–22364.
  67. Wang, M.; Wang, K.; Ma, C.; Uzabakiriho, P.C.; Chen, X.; Zhao, G. Mechanical Gradients Enable Highly Stretchable Electronics Based on Nanofiber Substrates. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 35997–36006.
  68. Cheng, H.; Wang, B.; Yang, K.; Yang, Y.Q.; Wang, C. A high-performance piezoresistive sensor based on poly (styrene-co-methacrylic acid)@polypyrrole microspheres/graphene-decorated TPU electrospun membrane for human motion detection. Chem. Eng. J. 2021, 426, 131152.
  69. Yang, G.; Tang, X.; Zhao, G.; Li, Y.; Ma, C.; Zhuang, X.; Yan, J. Highly sensitive, direction-aware, and transparent strain sensor based on oriented electrospun nanofibers for wearable electronic applications. Chem. Eng. J. 2022, 435, 135004.
  70. Lu, X.; Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Peng, C.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, Y. An ultra-wide sensing range film strain sensor based on a branch-shaped PAN-based carbon nanofiber and carbon black synergistic conductive network for human motion detection and human–machine interfaces. J. Mater. Chem. C 2022, 10, 6296–6305.
  71. Roy, K.; Jana, S.; Mallick, Z.; Ghosh, S.K.; Dutta, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, C.; Mandal, D. Two-Dimensional MOF Modulated Fiber Nanogenerator for Effective Acoustoelectric Conversion and Human Motion Detection. Langmuir 2021, 37, 7107–7117.
  72. Ren, M.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, M.; Yang, X.; Guo, D.; Dong, S.; Dhakal, R.; Yao, Z.; Li, Y.; Kim, N.Y. A high-performance wearable pressure sensor based on an MXene/PVP composite nanofiber membrane for health monitoring. Nanoscale Adv. 2022, 4, 3987–3995.
  73. Kweon, O.Y.; Lee, S.J.; Oh, J.H. Wearable high-performance pressure sensors based on three-dimensional electrospun conductive nanofibers. NPG Asia Mater. 2018, 10, 540–551.
  74. Cheng, Y.; Zhu, W.; Lu, X.; Wang, C. Mechanically robust, stretchable, autonomously adhesive, and environmentally tolerant triboelectric electronic skin for self-powered healthcare monitoring and tactile sensing. Nano Energy 2022, 102, 107636.
  75. Wang, S.; Shi, K.; Chai, B.; Qiao, S.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, P.; Huang, X. Core-shell structured silk Fibroin/PVDF piezoelectric nanofibers for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. Nano Mater. Sci. 2022, 4, 126–132.
  76. Wu, D.; Cheng, X.; Chen, Z.; Xu, Z.; Zhu, M.; Zhao, Y.; Zhu, R.; Lin, L. A flexible tactile sensor that uses polyimide/graphene oxide nanofiber as dielectric membrane for vertical and lateral force detection. Nanotechnology 2022, 33, 405205.
  77. Wan, X.; Cong, H.; Jiang, G.; Liang, X.; Liu, L.; He, H. A Review on PVDF Nanofibers in Textiles for Flexible Piezoelectric Sensors. ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 2023, 6, 1522–1540.
  78. Wang, G.; Liu, T.; Sun, X.-C.; Li, P.; Xu, Y.-S.; Hua, J.-G.; Yu, Y.-H.; Li, S.-X.; Dai, Y.-Z.; Song, X.-Y.; et al. Flexible pressure sensor based on PVDF nanofiber. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 2018, 280, 319–325.
  79. Yang, X.; Wang, Y.; Qing, X. A flexible capacitive sensor based on the electrospun PVDF nanofiber membrane with carbon nanotubes. Sens. Actuators A Phys. 2019, 299, 111579.
  80. Pandey, P.; Thapa, K.; Ojha, G.P.; Seo, M.-K.; Shin, K.H.; Kim, S.-W.; Sohn, J.I. Metal-organic frameworks-based triboelectric nanogenerator powered visible light communication system for wireless human-machine interactions. Chem. Eng. J. 2023, 452, 139209.
  81. Jiang, C.; Li, Q.; Fan, S.; Guo, Q.; Bi, S.; Wang, X.; Cao, X.; Liu, Y.; Song, J. Hyaline and stretchable haptic interfaces based on serpentine-shaped silver nanofiber networks. Nano Energy 2020, 73, 104782.
  82. Ye, G.; Wan, Y.; Wu, J.; Zhuang, W.; Zhou, Z.; Jin, T.; Zi, J.; Zhang, D.; Geng, X.; Yang, P. Multifunctional device integrating dual-temperature regulator for outdoor personal thermal comfort and triboelectric nanogenerator for self-powered human-machine interaction. Nano Energy 2022, 97, 107148.
  83. Chao, M.; Di, P.; Yuan, Y.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wan, P. Flexible breathable photothermal-therapy epidermic sensor with MXene for ultrasensitive wearable human-machine interaction. Nano Energy 2023, 108, 108201.
  84. Yang, J.; Liu, S.; Meng, Y.; Xu, W.; Liu, S.; Jia, L.; Chen, G.; Qin, Y.; Han, M.; Li, X. Self-Powered Tactile Sensor for Gesture Recognition Using Deep Learning Algorithms. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2022, 14, 25629–25637.
  85. Shen, G.; Chen, B.; Liang, T.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, S.; Liu, J.; Zhang, C.; Yang, W.; Wang, Y.; He, X. Transparent and Stretchable Strain Sensors with Improved Sensitivity and Reliability Based on Ag NWs and PEDOT:PSS Patterned Microstructures. Adv. Electron. Mater. 2020, 6, 1901360.
  86. Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Huo, Z.; Li, X.; Que, M.; Peng, Z.; Wang, H.; Pan, C. A Highly Stretchable Transparent Self-Powered Triboelectric Tactile Sensor with Metallized Nanofibers for Wearable Electronics. Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, e1706738.
  87. Kim, M.; Kaliannagounder, V.K.; Unnithan, A.R.; Park, C.H.; Kim, C.S.; Ramachandra Kurup Sasikala, A. Development of In-Situ Poled Nanofiber Based Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Motion Monitoring. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3493.
  88. Lin, X.; Bing, Y.; Li, F.; Mei, H.; Liu, S.; Fei, T.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, T. An All-Nanofiber-Based, Breathable, Ultralight Electronic Skin for Monitoring Physiological Signals. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2022, 7, 2101312.
  89. Ahmed, S.; Nauman, S.; Khan, Z.M. Electrospun nanofibrous yarn based piezoresistive flexible strain sensor for human motion detection and speech recognition. J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater. 2022, 1–23.
  90. He, J.; Guo, X.; Yu, J.; Qian, S.; Hou, X.; Cui, M.; Yang, Y.; Mu, J.; Geng, W.; Chou, X. A high-resolution flexible sensor array based on PZT nanofibers. Nanotechnology 2020, 31, 155503.
  91. Sengupta, D.; Romano, J.; Kottapalli, A.G.P. Electrospun bundled carbon nanofibers for skin-inspired tactile sensing, proprioception and gesture tracking applications. npj Flex. Electron. 2021, 5, 29.
  92. Khan, H.; Razmjou, A.; Ebrahimi Warkiani, M.; Kottapalli, A.; Asadnia, M. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring. Sensors 2018, 18, 418.
  93. Zheng, K.; Gu, F.; Wei, H.; Zhang, L.; Chen, X.; Jin, H.; Pan, S.; Chen, Y.; Wang, S. Flexible, Permeable, and Recyclable Liquid-Metal-Based Transient Circuit Enables Contact/Noncontact Sensing for Wearable Human-Machine Interaction. Small Methods 2023, 7, e2201534.
  94. Wang, X.; Liu, J.; Zheng, Y.; Shi, B.; Chen, A.; Wang, L.; Shen, G. Biocompatible liquid metal coated stretchable electrospinning film for strain sensors monitoring system. Sci. China Mater. 2022, 65, 2235–2243.
  95. Zhou, H.; Huang, W.; Xiao, Z.; Zhang, S.; Li, W.; Hu, J.; Feng, T.; Wu, J.; Zhu, P.; Mao, Y. Deep-Learning-Assisted Noncontact Gesture-Recognition System for Touchless Human-Machine Interfaces. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2022, 32, 2208271.
  96. Cao, J.; Liang, F.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Fan, Y.; Hu, C.; Yu, J.; Xu, J.; Yin, Y.; Li, F.; et al. Ultra-robust stretchable electrode for e-skin: In situ assembly using a nanofiber scaffold and liquid metal to mimic water-to-net interaction. InfoMat 2022, 4, e12302.
  97. Lu, L.; Jiang, C.; Hu, G.; Liu, J.; Yang, B. Flexible Noncontact Sensing for Human-Machine Interaction. Adv. Mater. 2021, 33, e2100218.
  98. Gong, M.; Wan, P.; Ma, D.; Zhong, M.; Liao, M.; Ye, J.; Shi, R.; Zhang, L. Flexible Breathable Nanomesh Electronic Devices for On-Demand Therapy. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2019, 29, 1902127.
Video Production Service