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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mayuribala Mangrulkar
Definition: Additive engineering based on quantum dots containing different functional groups introduced in the precursor. This allows the functional group to chelate under coordinated Pb vacancy or iodine defect sites at the surface of the perovskite layer .
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Kazimierz Gaj
Definition: Siloxanes are among the most technologically troublesome trace compounds present in biogas. As a result of their combustion, hard‐to‐remove sediments are formed, blocking biogas energy processing devices and reducing the efficiency of biogas plants. This entry can help to choose the optimal technology for the adsorptive removal of volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) from biogas and to identify adsorbents worth further development. Both the already implemented methods of adsorptive VMSs removal from landfill and sewage gases—e.g. using activated carbon and silica gel—and the ones being under development—e.g. using polymer resins—are presented, and their advantages and drawbacks are analyzed. The methods of obtaining adsorbents and the parameters of adsorption processes are discussed, and possible ways of regenerating spent adsorbents are evaluated. Especially promising adsorbents seem to be some zeolites—which can also be used for biogas desulfurization—and adsorbents based on polymer resins, as being particularly active towards VMSs and most amenable to multiple regeneration.
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Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Abstract: Rechargeable alkali metal-air batteries have enormous potential in energy storage applications due to their high energy densities, low-cost and environment friendliness. Membrane separators determine the performance and economic viability of these batteries. Usually, porous membrane separators taken from lithium-based batteries are used. Moreover, composite and cation-exchange membranes have been tested. However, crossover of unwanted species (such as zincate ions in zinc-air flow batteries) and/or low hydroxide ions conductivity are major issues to be overcome. On the other hand, state-of-art Anion-Exchange Membranes (AEMs) have been applied to meet the current challenges with regard to rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which has received the most attention among alkali metal-air batteries. The recent advances and remaining challenges of AEMs for these batteries are critically discussed. Correlation between the properties of the AEMs and performance and cyclability of the batteries has been established.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Davide Del Curto
Definition: Aerogel has entered the construction field in the last two decades as a component of many insulation products, due to its high thermal performance. Aerogel-based plasters allow the matching of high thermal performance and limited thickness. This makes them suitable when retrofitting an existing building and also when restoring a heritage building. This entry presents the state of the art of the research on aerogel-based plasters as a part of the aerogel-products for the building sector.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Sep 2021
Definition: Agrivoltaic systems (AVS) offer a symbiotic strategy for co-location sustainable renewable energy and agricultural production. This is particularly important in densely populated developing and developed countries, where renewable energy development is becoming more important; however, profitable farmland must be preserved. As emphasized in the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus, AVS advancements should not only focus on energy management, but also agronomic management (crop and water management).
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Patrick Moriarty
Definition: Because of the near-term risk of extreme weather events and other adverse consequences from climate change and, at least in the longer term, global fossil fuel depletion, there is worldwide interest in shifting to noncarbon energy sources, especially renewable energy (RE). Because of possible limitations on conventional renewable energy sources, researchers have looked for ways of overcoming these shortcomings by introducing radically new energy technologies. For wind energy, a possible alternative is airborne wind turbines.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Gene Yang
Definition: All-solid-state batteries (SSBs) are one of the most fascinating next-generation energy storage systems that can provide improved energy density and safety for a wide range of applications from portable electronics to electric vehicles. The development of SSBs was accelerated by the discovery of new materials and the design of nanostructures. In particular, advances in the growth of thin-film battery materials facilitated the development of all solid-state thin-film batteries (SSTFBs)—expanding their applications to microelectronics such as flexible devices and implantable medical devices. However, critical challenges still remain, such as low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes, interfacial instability and difficulty in controlling thin-film growth. In this review, we discuss the evolution of electrode and electrolyte materials for lithium-based batteries and their adoption in SSBs and SSTFBs. We highlight novel design strategies of bulk and thin-film materials to solve the issues in lithium-based batteries. We also focus on the important advances in thin-film electrodes, electrolytes and interfacial layers with the aim of providing insight into the future design of batteries. Furthermore, various thin-film fabrication techniques are also covered in this review.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Nikoletta L Trivyza
Definition: Ammonia use in maritime applications is considered promising, due to its high energy density, low flammability, easy storage and low production cost. Moreover, ammonia can be used as fuel in a variety of propulsors such as fuel cells and can be produced from renewable sources.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Muhammad Aziz
Definition: Ammonia is the second-largest global chemical products, utilized as agricultural fertilizer, food production, industrial materials, refrigerants, and additives. Recently, the utilization of ammonia as the energy carrier (secondary energy source) has attracted many interests, due to its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure,high stability for long-term storage, high auto-ignition temperature,low condensation pressure, and lower gas density than air. in general,ammonia production includes the currently adopted thermochemical (Haber–Bosch), electrochemical, and photochemical cycle processes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: I. M. Rizwanul Fattah
Definition: Ammonia is among the most commonly shipped bulk-produced chemicals, marketed for more than a decade in mass all over the globe. Originally used in the chemical industries and as an intermediate for the production of fertilisers, ammonia has also been explored recently as a hydrogen storage media and a substitute fuel for hydrocarbon. Unlike the conventional ammonia production process that used natural gas as a feedstock and is responsible for carbon emission, ammonia is a means of renewable energy storage formulated from hydrogen generated by an electrically driven electrolyser and nitrogen separate from the atmospheric air.
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