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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ramunas Deltuva
Definition: A high-voltage AC double-circuit 400 kV overhead power transmission line runs from the city of Elk (Poland) to the city of Alytus (Lithuania). This international 400 kV power transmission line is potentially one of the strongest magnetic field-generating sources in the area. This 400 kV voltage double-circuit overhead transmission line and its surroundings were analyzed using the mathematical analytical methods of superposition and reflections. This research paper includes the calculation of the numerical values of the magnetic field and its distribution. The research showed that the values of the magnetic field strength near the international 400 kV power transmission line exceed the threshold values permitted by relevant standards. This overhead power line is connected to the general (50 Hz) power system and generates a highly intense magnetic field. It is suggested that experimental trials should be undertaken in order to determine the maximum values of the magnetic field strength. For the purpose of mitigating these values, it is suggested that the height of the support bars should be increased or that any individual and commercial activities near the object under investigation should be restricted.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Agbotiname Imoize
Definition: 6G is expected to have data rates in the order of terabits per second and a latency of less than 1ms. It is expected to drive the Internet of Everything, with 10,000,000 connections per square km.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Hailong Huang
Definition: This entry proposes a novel parcel delivery system which consists of a drone and public transportation vehicles such as trains, trams, etc. This system involves two delivery schemes: drone-direct scheme referring to delivering to a customer by a drone directly and drone–vehicle collaborating scheme referring to delivering a customer based on the collaboration of a drone and public transportation vehicles. The fundamental characteristics including the delivery time, energy consumption and battery recharging are modelled, based on which a time-dependent scheduling problem for a single drone is formulated. It is shown to be NP-complete and a dynamic programming-based exact algorithm is presented. Since its computational complexity is exponential with respect to the number of customers, a sub-optimal algorithm is further developed. This algorithm accounts the time for delivery and recharging, and it first schedules the customer which leads to the earliest return.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Marco Martalò
Definition: Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADASs) are used for increasing safety in the automotive domain, yet current ADASs notably operate without taking into account drivers’ states, e.g., whether she/he is emotionally apt to drive.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ciril Bohak
Definition: Direct point-cloud visualisation is a common approach for visualising large datasets of aerial terrain LiDAR scans. However, because of the limitations of the acquisition technique, such visualisations often lack the desired visual appeal and quality, mostly because certain types of objects are incomplete or entirely missing (e.g., missing water surfaces, missing building walls and missing parts of the terrain). To improve the quality of direct LiDAR point-cloud rendering, we present a point-cloud processing pipeline that uses data fusion to augment the data with additional points on water surfaces, building walls and terrain through the use of vector maps of water surfaces and building outlines. In the last step of the pipeline, we also add colour information, and calculate point normals for illumination of individual points to make the final visualisation more visually appealing. We evaluate our approach on several parts of the Slovenian LiDAR dataset.
Entry Collection : Remote Sensing Data Fusion
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Arunas Ramanavicius
Definition: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was proclaimed a global pandemic in March 2020. Reducing the dissemination rate, in particular by tracking the infected people and their contacts, is the main instrument against infection spreading. Therefore, the creation and implementation of fast, reliable and responsive methods suitable for the diagnosis of COVID-19 are required. These needs can be fulfilled using affinity sensors, which differ in applied detection methods and markers that are generating analytical signals. Recently, nucleic acid hybridization, antigen-antibody interaction, and change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level are mostly used for the generation of analytical signals, which can be accurately measured by electrochemical, optical, surface plasmon resonance, field-effect transistors, and some other methods and transducers.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Shamsul Arafin
Definition: The development of electrically pumped semiconductor diode lasers emitting at the ultraviolet (UV)-B and -C spectral bands has been an active area of research over the past several years, motivated by a wide range of emerging applications. III-Nitride materials and their alloys, in particular AlGaN, are the material of choice for the development of this ultrashort-wavelength laser technology. Despite significant progress in AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the technological advancement and innovation in diode lasers at these spectral bands is lagging due to several technical challenges.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Qiang Li
Definition: Microcystin is a kind of biotoxin widely found in freshwater bodies across the world. It is one of the indicators of water eutrophication which makes water consumption harmful to human beings. Microcystin can inhibit the production of protein phosphatase in cells and exposure to microcystin can severely damage organs, including liver, intestines, lungs, and kidneys. There are many variants of microcystin, such as MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR (L, R, and Y stand for leucine, arginine, and tyrosine, respectively). Among them, MC-LR is the most common and the most toxic variant.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Hongye Zhang
Definition: Alternating current (AC) loss is generated due to the movement of magnetic vortices within the superconductor when experiencing time-varying currents or magnetic fields (or both). AC loss can be categorized into transport current loss and magnetization loss based on the AC source. Particularly, when a superconductor carries a direct current (DC) and is simultaneously exposed to an AC field, dynamic resistance occurs and leads to dynamic loss. Quantification and minimization of AC loss are crucial because the produced heat can not only present severe challenges to the cryogenic systems but also impair the reliability of superconducting devices, leaving a safety hazard. To quantify the AC loss of superconductors, analytical formulae, numerical models, and experimental measurements have been widely adopted. Concerning AC loss minimization techniques, the modification of superconductor structures (filamentation and twisting), flux diverters, as well as winding techniques have been widely exploited. This entry serves to clarify the characteristics and quantification methods of AC loss as well as its minimization techniques in superconductors. It is believed to help deepen the understanding of AC loss and deliver a helpful guideline for future research efforts.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Roland Ludwig
Definition: Amperometric biosensors utilizing oxidoreductases were classified into three generations: 1st generation biosensors employing oxidases based on the electrocatalytic monitoring of substrate consumption or product formation, 2nd generation biosensors employing oxidases or dehydrogenases based on the electrocatalytic recycling of suitable redox mediators, and 3rd generation biosensors employing oxidoreductases capable of direct electron transfer to bare or modified electrodes.
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