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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gaetano Di Bella
Definition: Membrane-fouling represents a major drawback hampering the wider application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. Fouling can be mitigated by applying aerobic granular sludge technology, a novel kind of biofilm technology characterized by high settleability, strong microbial structure, high resilience to toxic/recalcitrant compounds of industrial wastewater, and the possibility to simultaneously remove organic matter and nutrients. Different schemes can be foreseen for the AGS–MBR process. However, an updated literature review reveals that in the AGS–MBR process, granule breakage represents a critical problem in all configurations, which often causes an increase of pore-blocking.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Jose-Luis Molina
Definition: The are thousands of large dams over the globe. The importance of dams is rapidly increasing due to the impact of climate change on increasing hydrological process variability and on water planning and management need. This study tackles a review for the concrete arch-dams’ design process, from a dual sustainability/safety management approach. On one hand, Sustainability is evaluated through a design optimization for dams´ stability and deformation analysis. On the other hand, safety is directly related to the reduction and consequences of failure risk. For that, several scenarios about stability and deformation, identifying desirable and undesirable actions, were estimated. More than 100 specific parameters regarding dam-reservoir-foundation-sediments system and their interactions have been collected. Also, a summary of mathematical modelling was made, and more than 100 references were summarized. The following consecutive steps, required to design engineering (why act), maintenance (when to act) and operations activities (how to act), were evaluated: individuation of hazards, definition of failure potential and estimation of consequences (harm to people, assets and environment). Results show that the area to model the dam–foundation interaction is around 3.0 Hd2, the system-damping ratio and vibration period is 8.5% and 0.39 s. Also, maximum elastic and elasto-plastic displacements are ~0.10–0.20 m. The failure probability for stability is 34%, whereas for deformation it is 29%
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Haosen Chen
Definition: The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is a significant driver of economic activity around the world. Structure- and workplace-related safety accidents have the potential to be life-threatening. Unfortunately, these are always some of the most overlooked things in the sector.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 May 2021
Submitted by: Abdalrhman Milad
Definition: The performance of bituminous materials is mainly affected by the prevailing maximum and minimum temperatures, and their mechanical properties can vary significantly with the magnitude of the temperature changes. The given effect can be observed from changes occurring in the bitumen or asphalt mixture stiffness and the materials’ serviceable life. Furthermore, when asphalt pavement layer are used, the temperature changes can be credited to climatic factors such as air temperature, solar radiation and wind.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Mykola Sysyn
Definition: Ballasted track has the phenomenon of local instabilities, which are usually related to the intensive sleeper void development that requires enormous maintenance costs and influences track reliability, availability and safety. The appearance of the void zones is unavoidable in such structures as transition zones, turnouts and rail joints.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Aneta Kowalska
Definition: Biowastes refer to the biodegradable food residues from private household and food industry, garden industry, municipal wastes, and sewage sludge.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Edoardo Bocci
Definition: Bitumen aging and rejuvenation include a series of chemical transformations that the material undergoes and that results in the variation of its physical characteristics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Ali khudhair
Definition: The evolution of the construction industry is associated with the continuous implementation of new technologies. Building Information Modelling (BIM) has revolutionised the collaboration and data sharing processes in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Marc Edwards
Definition: The growth of Legionella pneumophila and other opportunistic pathogens (OPs) in drinking water premise plumbing poses an increasing public health concern. Premise plumbing is constructed of a variety of materials, creating complex environments that vary chemically, microbiologically, spatially, and temporally in a manner likely to influence survival and growth of OPs. Plastic pipes can leach organic carbon, but demonstrate a lower disinfectant demand and fewer water chemistry interactions. Iron pipes may provide OPs with nutrients directly or indirectly, exhibiting a high disinfectant demand and potential to form scales with high surface areas suitable for biofilm colonization. While copper pipes are known for their antimicrobial properties, evidence of their efficacy for OP control is inconsistent. Under some as yet not fully understood circumstances, copper’s interactions with premise plumbing water chemistry and resident microbes can encourage growth of OPs. Plumbing design, configuration, and operation can be manipulated to control such interactions and health outcomes. Influences of pipe materials on OP physiology should also be considered, including the possibility of influencing virulence and antibiotic resistance. In conclusion, all known pipe materials have a potential to either stimulate or inhibit OP growth, depending on the circumstances.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Kerri McClymont
Definition: Catchment resilience can be used as a unifying concept to explore the role of latent conditions that are triggered by hydro-hazards and their impact on exposed people or assets. Catchment resilience requires acknowledging the interactions between natural, technical, and social systems within a catchment, and considering feedbacks between exposure, vulnerability, and resilience of the catchment.
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