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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Dong-Woo Cho
Definition: The musculoskeletal system is a vital body system that protects internal organs, supports locomotion, and maintains homeostatic function. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Although implant surgeries using autografts, allografts, and xenografts have been conducted, several adverse effects, including donor site morbidity and immunoreaction, exist. To overcome these limitations, various biomedical engineering approaches have been proposed based on an understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal tissue. In this review, the leading edge of musculoskeletal tissue engineering using 3D bioprinting technology and musculoskeletal tissue-derived decellularized extracellular matrix bioink is described. In particular, studies on in vivo regeneration and in vitro modeling of musculoskeletal tissue have been focused on. Lastly, the current breakthroughs, limitations, and future perspectives are described.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Niels Grigat
Definition: 3D braiding technologies enable the production of structures with complex geometry, which are often used for lightweight solutions, for example in automotive engineering. In addition, medical technology offers wide-ranging applications for 3D braiding technology. 3D braided structures are defined as those with yarns that intersect in all three spatial directions. 3D braiding processes allow the fiber orientation to be easily influenced, thus ensuring high strength and stiffness with reduced mass.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 May 2021
Submitted by: Graca Minas
Definition: Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models, such as organ-on-a-chip platforms, are an emerging and effective technology that allows the replication of the function of tissues and organs, bridging the gap amid the conventional models based on planar cell cultures or animals and the complex human system. Hence, they have been increasingly used for biomedical research, such as drug discovery and personalized healthcare. A promising strategy for their fabrication is 3D printing, a layer-by-layer fabrication process that allows the construction of complex 3D structures.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Dafna Benayahu
Definition: To provide the conditions for the mechanical and structural properties needed for the restored tissue and its appropriate functioning, the scaffold requires specific biochemical properties in order to ensure a correct healing process. The scaffold creates a support system and requires a suitable material that will transduce the appropriate signals for the regenerative process to take place. A scaffold composed of material that mimics natural tissue, rather than a synthetic material, will achieve better results.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Dec 2020
Definition: Acrylic bone cements (ABC) are widely used in orthopedics for joint fixation, antibiotic release, and bone defect filling, among others. Most of the commercial ABCs available today consist of two components, one solid, based mainly on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and one liquid, based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), which are mixed and, through the polymerization reaction of the monomer, transformed into a hardened cement paste.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Apr 2021
Definition: Additive manufacturing, which is also known as 3D printing, is an emerging and growing technology. It is providing significant innovations and improvements in many areas such as engineering, production, medicine, and more. 3D food printing is an area of great promise to provide an indulgence or entertaining experience, personalized food product, or specific nutritional needs. This entry reviews the additive manufacturing methods and materials in detail as well as their advantages and disadvantages. After a full discussion of 3D food printing, the reports on edible printed materials are briefly presented and discussed. In the end, the current and future outlook of additive manufacturing in the food industry is shown.
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Others
Updated time: 30 Jul 2020
Submitted by: Francesco Urciuolo
Abstract: The formation of severe scars still represents the result of the closure process of extendedand deep skin wounds. To address this issue, different bioengineered skin substitutes have beendeveloped but a general consensus regarding their effectiveness has not been achieved yet. It willbe shown that bioengineered skin substitutes, although representing a valid alternative toautografting, induce skin cells in repairing the wound rather than guiding a regeneration process.Repaired skin differs from regenerated skin, showing high contracture, loss of sensitivity, impairedpigmentation and absence of cutaneous adnexa (i.e., hair follicles and sweat glands). This leads tosignificant mobility and aesthetic concerns, making the development of more effectivebioengineered skin models a current need. The objective of this review is to determine thelimitations of either commercially available or investigational bioengineered skin substitutes andhow advanced skin tissue engineering strategies can be improved in order to completely restoreskin functions after severe wounds.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Giulio Reina
Definition: Approximately 70% of the upper extremity amputations refers to partial hand loss with the involvement of one or more fingers. Historically, this type of limb amputation has been addressed adopting simple opposition designs that use the movement of the residual digit for grasping against a fixed device. Nevertheless, in the last few years, technological advances, and the introduction of modern computer-aided tools for the synthesis and functional design of mechanisms have led to the development of smaller, more robust systems that are constantly improving body-powered and electrically-powered prototypes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Shyam Mohapatra
Definition: The burgeoning field of nanotechnology aims to create and deploy nanoscale structures, devices, and systems with novel, size-dependent properties and functions. The nanotechnology revolution has sparked radically new technologies and strategies across all scientific disciplines, with nanotechnology now applied to virtually every area of research and development in the US and globally. NanoFlorida was founded to create a forum for scientific exchange, promote networking among nanoscientists, encourage collaborative research efforts across institutions, forge strong industry-academia partnerships in nanoscience, and showcase the contributions of students and trainees in nanotechnology fields. The 2019 NanoFlorida International Conference expanded this vision to emphasize national and international participation, with a focus on advances made in translating nanotechnology. This review highlights notable research in the areas of engineering especially in optics, photonics and plasmonics and electronics; biomedical devices, nano-biotechnology, nanotherapeutics including both experimental nanotherapies and nanovaccines; nano-diagnostics and -theranostics; nano-enabled drug discovery platforms; tissue engineering, bioprinting, and environmental nanotechnology, as well as challenges and directions for future research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Adnan Anwar
Definition: This work represents a comprehensive analysis of the potential AI, ML, and IoT technologies for defending against the COVID-19 pandemic. The existing and potential applications of AI, ML, and IoT, along with a detailed analysis of the enabling tools and techniques are outlined. A critical discussion on the risks and limitations of the aforementioned technologies are also included.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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