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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Dec 2020
Definition: Acrylic bone cements (ABC) are widely used in orthopedics for joint fixation, antibiotic release, and bone defect filling, among others. Most of the commercial ABCs available today consist of two components, one solid, based mainly on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and one liquid, based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), which are mixed and, through the polymerization reaction of the monomer, transformed into a hardened cement paste.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Apr 2021
Definition: Additive manufacturing, which is also known as 3D printing, is an emerging and growing technology. It is providing significant innovations and improvements in many areas such as engineering, production, medicine, and more. 3D food printing is an area of great promise to provide an indulgence or entertaining experience, personalized food product, or specific nutritional needs. This entry reviews the additive manufacturing methods and materials in detail as well as their advantages and disadvantages. After a full discussion of 3D food printing, the reports on edible printed materials are briefly presented and discussed. In the end, the current and future outlook of additive manufacturing in the food industry is shown.
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Updated time: 30 Jul 2020
Submitted by: Francesco Urciuolo
Abstract: The formation of severe scars still represents the result of the closure process of extendedand deep skin wounds. To address this issue, different bioengineered skin substitutes have beendeveloped but a general consensus regarding their effectiveness has not been achieved yet. It willbe shown that bioengineered skin substitutes, although representing a valid alternative toautografting, induce skin cells in repairing the wound rather than guiding a regeneration process.Repaired skin differs from regenerated skin, showing high contracture, loss of sensitivity, impairedpigmentation and absence of cutaneous adnexa (i.e., hair follicles and sweat glands). This leads tosignificant mobility and aesthetic concerns, making the development of more effectivebioengineered skin models a current need. The objective of this review is to determine thelimitations of either commercially available or investigational bioengineered skin substitutes andhow advanced skin tissue engineering strategies can be improved in order to completely restoreskin functions after severe wounds.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Giulio Reina
Definition: Approximately 70% of the upper extremity amputations refers to partial hand loss with the involvement of one or more fingers. Historically, this type of limb amputation has been addressed adopting simple opposition designs that use the movement of the residual digit for grasping against a fixed device. Nevertheless, in the last few years, technological advances, and the introduction of modern computer-aided tools for the synthesis and functional design of mechanisms have led to the development of smaller, more robust systems that are constantly improving body-powered and electrically-powered prototypes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Shyam Mohapatra
Definition: The burgeoning field of nanotechnology aims to create and deploy nanoscale structures, devices, and systems with novel, size-dependent properties and functions. The nanotechnology revolution has sparked radically new technologies and strategies across all scientific disciplines, with nanotechnology now applied to virtually every area of research and development in the US and globally. NanoFlorida was founded to create a forum for scientific exchange, promote networking among nanoscientists, encourage collaborative research efforts across institutions, forge strong industry-academia partnerships in nanoscience, and showcase the contributions of students and trainees in nanotechnology fields. The 2019 NanoFlorida International Conference expanded this vision to emphasize national and international participation, with a focus on advances made in translating nanotechnology. This review highlights notable research in the areas of engineering especially in optics, photonics and plasmonics and electronics; biomedical devices, nano-biotechnology, nanotherapeutics including both experimental nanotherapies and nanovaccines; nano-diagnostics and -theranostics; nano-enabled drug discovery platforms; tissue engineering, bioprinting, and environmental nanotechnology, as well as challenges and directions for future research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Adnan Anwar
Definition: This work represents a comprehensive analysis of the potential AI, ML, and IoT technologies for defending against the COVID-19 pandemic. The existing and potential applications of AI, ML, and IoT, along with a detailed analysis of the enabling tools and techniques are outlined. A critical discussion on the risks and limitations of the aforementioned technologies are also included.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Antonio ZUORRO
Definition: Microalgal biomass has gained a significant role in the development of dif-ferent high-end (nutraceuticals, colorants, food supplements, and pharmaceuticals) and low-end products (biodiesel, bioethanol, and biogas) due to its rapid growth and high carbon-fixing effi-ciency. Therefore, microalgae are considered a useful and sustainable resource to attain energy security while reducing our current reliance on fossil fuels. From the technologies available for obtaining biofuels using microalgae biomass, thermochemical processes (pyrolysis, Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL), gasification) have proven to be processed with higher viability, because they use all biomass. However, due to the complex structure of the biomass (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins), the obtained biofuels from direct thermochemical conversion have large amounts of heteroatoms (oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur). As a solution, catalyst-based processes have emerged as a sustainable solution for the increase in biocrude production.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Hans Gregersen
Definition: Recently, a simulated stool named Fecobionics was developed. It has the consistency and shape of normal stool. Fecobionics records a variety of parameters including pressures, bending, and shape changes. It has been used to study defecation patterns in large animals and humans, including patients with symptoms of obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence. Recently, it was applied in a canine colon model where it revealed patterns consistent with shallow waves originating from slow waves generated by the interstitial Cells of Cajal.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Emanuel M. Fernandes
Definition: Pathogenic microbes are a major source of health and environmental problems, mostly due to their easy proliferation on most surfaces. Currently, new classes of antimicrobial agents are under development to prevent microbial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, they are mostly from synthetic origin and present several disadvantages. The use of natural biopolymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, derived from lignocellulosic materials as antimicrobial agents has a promising potential. Lignocellulosic materials are one of the most abundant natural materials from renewable sources, and they present attractive characteristics, such as low density and biodegradability, are low-cost, high availability, and environmentally friendly.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Feb 2021
Submitted by: samy shaban
Definition: Recently, aptamers have attracted attention in the biosensing field as signal recognition elements because of their high binding affinity toward specific targets such as proteins, cells, small molecules, and even metal ions. Aptamers have intrinsic advantages, such as their availability for both chemical modifications and conjugation with different labels, facilitating their ability to be used to construct a sensitive and highly selective platform sensor. Aptamers can be easily functionalized and engineered, providing several signaling modes such as colorimetric, fluorometric, and electrochemical, in what is known as aptasensors.
Entry Collection : Chemical Bond
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