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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Soon Hee Kim
Definition: Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology holds great potential to fabricate complex constructs in the field of regenerative medicine. Researchers in the surgical fields have used 3D printing techniques and their associated biomaterials for education, training, consultation, organ transplantation, plastic surgery, surgical planning, dentures, and more. In addition, the universal utilization of 3D printing techniques enables researchers to exploit different types of hardware and software in, for example, the surgical fields. To realize the 3D-printed structures to implant them in the body and tissue regeneration, it is important to understand 3D printing technology and its enabling technologies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Chien Khong Duc
Definition: Detection of vehicles on the road can contribute to the establishment of an intelligent transportation management system to allow smooth transportation and the reduction of road accidents. Thus far, an efficient and low-cost polymer flexible pressure sensor for vehicle detection is lacking. This paper presents a flexible sensor for vehicle sensing and demonstrates a wireless system for monitoring vehicles on the road. A vehicle sensor is fabricated by sandwiching a polyurethane material between Aluminum top/bottom electrodes. The sensing mechanism is based on changes in capacitance due to variation in the distance between the two electrodes at an applied external pressure. A clear response against a pressure load of 0.65 Mpa is observed, which is the same pressure as that of the car tire area in contact with the road. Significantly, the sensor is easy to embed on the road line due to its mechanical flexibility and large size. A field test is carried out by embedding the sensor on the road and crossing the sensor with a car. Moreover, the signal displayed on the tablet indicates that the sensing system can be used for wireless detection of the axle, speed, or weight of the vehicle on the road. The findings suggest that the flexible pressure sensor is a promising tool for use as a low-cost vehicle detector in future intelligent transportation management.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Mauro Callejas-Cuervo
Definition: Automatic wheelchairs refers to devices equipped with wheelchairs, which can move automatically. Automatic wheelchairs have evolved in terms of instrumentation and control, improving the mobility of people with physical disabilities. The different wheelchair control techniques are divided into two categories: sensor technology non-invasively placed on the user and wheelchair instrumentation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Jingjing Hao
Definition: As the intelligent car-networking represents the new direction of the future vehicular development, automotive security plays an increasingly important role in the whole car industry chain. On condition that the accompanying problems of security are proofed, vehicles will provide more convenience while ensuring safety. Security models can be utilized as tools to rationalize the security of the automotive system and represent it in a structured manner.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Mahdi Rezaei
Definition: An Autonomous Vehicle (AV), or a driverless car, or a self-driving vehicle is a car, bus, truck, or any other vehicle that is able to drive from point A to point B and perform all necessary driving operations and functions without any human intervention. An Autonomous Vehicle is normally equipped with different types of sensors to perceive the surrounding environment, including Normal Vision Cameras, Infrared Cameras, RADAR, LiDAR, and Ultrasonic Sensors. An autonomous vehicle should be able to detect and recognise all type of road users including surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, traffic signs, road markings, and can segment the free spaces, intersections, buildings, and trees to perform a safe driving task. Currently, no realistic prediction expects we see fully autonomous vehicles earlier than 2030.
Entry Collection : Remote Sensing Data Fusion
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Mahdi Rezaei
Definition: An Autonomous Vehicle (AV), or a driverless car, or a self-driving vehicle is a car, bus, truck, or any other vehicle that is able to drive from point A to point B and perform all necessary driving functions, without any human intervention. An Autonomous Vehicle is normally equipped with different types of sensors to perceive the surrounding environment, including Normal Vision Cameras, Infrared Cameras, RADAR, LiDAR, and Ultrasonic Sensors. An autonomous vehicle should be able to detect and recognise all type of road users including surrounding vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, traffic signs, road markings, and can segment the free spaces, intersections, buildings, and trees to perform a safe driving task. Currently, no realistic prediction expects we see fully autonomous vehicles earlier than 2030.
Entry Collection : Remote Sensing Data Fusion
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Definition: In public transport operations, vehicles tend to bunch together due to the instability of passenger demand and traffic conditions. Fluctuation of the expected waiting times of passengers at bus stops due to bus bunching is perceived as service unreliability and degrades the overall quality of service. For assessing the performance of high-frequency bus services, transportation authorities monitor the daily operations via Transit Management Systems (TMS) that collect vehicle positioning information in near real-time. This work explores the potential of using Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) data from the running vehicles for generating bus schedules that improve the service reliability and conform to various regulatory constraints. The computer-aided generation of optimal bus schedules is a tedious task due to the nonlinear and multi-variable nature of the bus scheduling problem. For this reason, this work develops a two-level approach where (i) the regulatory constraints are satisfied and (ii) the waiting times of passengers are optimized with the introduction of an evolutionary algorithm. This work also discusses the experimental results from the implementation of such an approach in a bi-directional bus line operated by a major bus operator in northern Europe.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Naoto Ohtake
Definition: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been extensively applied in industries owing to their excellent characteristics such as high hardness. In particular, there is a growing demand for their use as protective films for mechanical parts owing to their excellent wear resistance and low friction coefficient. DLC films have been deposited by various methods and many deviate from the DLC regions present in the ternary diagrams proposed for sp3covalent carbon, sp2covalent carbon, and hydrogen. Consequently, redefining the DLC region on ternary diagrams using DLC coatings for mechanical and electrical components is urgently required. Therefore, we investigate the sp3ratio, hydrogen content, and other properties of 74 types of amorphous carbon films and present the classification of amorphous carbon films, including DLC. We measured the sp3ratios and hydrogen content using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and Rutherford backscattering-elastic recoil detection analysis under unified conditions. Amorphous carbon films were widely found with nonuniform distribution. The number of carbon atoms in the sp3covalent carbon without bonding with hydrogen and the logarithm of the hydrogen content were inversely proportional. Further, we elucidated the DLC regions on the ternary diagram, classified the amorphous carbon films, and summarized the characteristics and applications of each type of DLC.
Entry Collection : Society 5.0
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: liang xingyu
Definition: Low-emission and high-efficiency have always been the targets for Internal Combustion Engine development. For diesel engines, homogeneous charge (aka. HCCI) and premixed charge (aka. PCCI) combustion modes provide both low-emission and high-efficiency simultaneously. To achieve these advanced combustion modes, early injection is needed as a relatively longer air-fuel mixing time is guaranteed. Several key parameters, such as the injection timing, pressure, angle, directly determine the final combustion process and thus the emission and efficiency performance. The pros and cons of these key parameters are discussed in detail here to provide a good review of the early-injection strategy.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Aleksandar Djordjevic
Definition: End-of-life vehicle (ELV) recycling is a process that spends energy and could be an energy source as well. This part of energy recovering depends on many different factors related to the broad and local aspects of ELV recycling. The ELV recycling process is consuming energy from different energy sources (electrical, fossil), however, this consumption is lower in relation to energy consumption during the production of new vehicle parts from the very beginning. ELVs have, in the first phase, been considered as an environmental problem, which must be solved through many decision-making approaches, directives, and standards. Accordingly, it may be concluded, that this issue is very complex since it includes a lot of relations concerning ELV recycling, as well as broad infrastructure and socio-economic environment factors. On the other hand, there is not enough relevant and reliable information related to the ELV recycling and energy recovery through ELV recycling process. This information can be obtained through user responses, financial analysis, business analysis, or some government body relevant information sources. Due to new regulations related to ELV recycling, the responsibility of manufacturers is becoming increasingly important. They are obligated to design and revise their processes and adapt them to new legislation norms.
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