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Updated time: 30 Apr 2021
Definition: Chronic inflammation is a major cause of human cancers. The environmental factors, such as microbiome, dietary components, and obesity, provoke chronic inflammation in the prostate, which promotes cancer development and progression. Crosstalk between immune cells and cancer cells enhances the secretion of intercellular signaling molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby orchestrating the generation of inflammatory microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play pivotal roles in inflammation-associated cancer by inhibiting effective anti-tumor immunity. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, metformin, and statins, have potential application in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory immunity-targeted therapies may provide novel strategies to treat patients with cancer. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents are expected to suppress the “vicious cycle” created by immune and cancer cells and inhibit cancer progression. This review has explored the immune cells that facilitate prostate cancer development and progression, with particular focus on the application of anti-inflammatory agents for both chemoprevention and therapeutic approach in prostate cancer.
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Definition: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare disorder and one of the most severe forms of polycystic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in childhood. PKHD1 is the gene that is responsible for the vast majority of ARPKD. However, some cases have been related to a new gene that was recently identified (DZIP1L gene), as well as several ciliary genes that can mimic a ARPKD-like phenotypic spectrum. In addition, a number of molecular pathways involved in the ARPKD pathogenesis and progression were elucidated using cellular and animal models. However, the function of the ARPKD proteins and the molecular mechanism of the disease currently remain incompletely understood.
Updated time: 26 May 2021
Definition: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with serious public health consequences due to its persistence within arable soils, and the ease with which it enters food chains and then, accumulates in human tissues to induce a broad range of adverse health effects. Diet is a primary exposure source for non-smoking populations, whilst cigarette smoke is an additional source of Cd among those who smoked. Cd exists in cigarette smoke as a non-volatile oxide form (CdO), and a volatile metallic form with high transmission rates. Of further concern, the electronegativity of Cd is similar to that of zinc (Zn), a nutritionally essential metal, whereas its ionic radius is similar to calcium (Ca) Thus, Cd can enter the body from the gut and lungs through the metal transporter systems and pathways evolved for acquisition and storage of Zn, Ca, and other nutritionally essential metals such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn).
Updated time: 14 May 2021
Definition: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the leading nosocomial infections in the world and have led to the extensive study of various strategies to prevent infection. However, despite an abundance of anti-infection materials having been studied over the last forty-five years, only a few types have come into clinical use, providing an insignificant reduction in CAUTIs. Marine resources have emerged as an unexplored area of opportunity offering huge potential in discovering novel bioactive materials to combat human diseases. To date, some marine microbial-derived materials have exhibited potent antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity against a broad spectrum of uropathogens (including multidrug-resistant pathogens) that could be potentially used in urinary catheters to eradicate CAUTIs.
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Definition: Gray scale ultrasound has an important diagnostic role in native kidney disease. Low cost, absence of ionizing radiation and nephrotoxicity, short performance time, and repeatability even at the bedside, are the major advantages of this technique. The introduction of contrast enhancement ultrasound (CEUS) in daily clinical practice has significantly reduced the use of contrast enhancement computed tomography (CECT) and contrast enhancement magnetic resonance (CEMR), especially in patients with renal disease.
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Definition: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most prevalent neoplasia of the urinary tract.
Updated time: 27 Sep 2020
Definition: Fabry disease (FD; OMIM#301500) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with inherited or de novo disease causing variants in the α-galactosidase A gene (GLA; OMIM*300644). Reduced or even absent α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A; EC 22.214.171.124) activity leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipids with terminal α-D-galactosyl residues, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) in plasma, urine and different organ systems, mainly cardiac, renal, endothelial and neuronal. The major physiological source of Gb3 is globoside, a glycolipid of erythrocytes and cells membranes found in different tissues. Kidneys are very frequently affected in patients with Fabry disease regardless of gender. Most important manifestations of Fabry nephropathy are proteinuria and slowly progressive chronic kidney disease, which can in some cases lead to end stage renal disease.
Updated time: 28 Jun 2021
Definition: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common underestimated complication of diabetes mellitus that affects more than 50% of people with diabetes. Diabetes dramatically raises the risk of developing ED by 2.5-fold. Despite that several studies have explained the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the generation of erectile failure, few studies to date have described the efficacy of glucose-lowering medications in the restoration of normal sexual activity. Herein, we will present current knowledge about the main starters of the pathophysiology of diabetic ED and explore the role of different anti-diabetes therapies in the potential remission of ED, highlighting specific pathways whose activation or inhibition could be fundamental for sexual care in a diabetes setting.
Updated time: 07 Jun 2021
Definition: Accumulating evidence indicates that sex hormone receptors, such as androgen receptor and estrogen receptors, play an important role in modulating sensitivity to conventional non-surgical therapy for bladder cancer.
Updated time: 06 Nov 2020
Abstract: Emerging studies suggest that unsolved inflammation will progressively transit into kidney fibrosis that finally results in an irreversible end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing studies have suggested pathogenic roles of innate immunity in the kidney diseases. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may uncover a novel therapeutic strategy for ESRD.