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Updated time: 24 Aug 2021
Definition: Venous thromboembolism, which includes both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with cancer. The impact of ABO blood type in the development of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients remains controversial. To develop a sense of current opinion in this area, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood type is routinely determined preoperatively by objective and standardized methods, and our results suggest that these blood type results are useful for risk stratification and potentially for encouraging appropriate strategies for implementation of prophylactic treatment strategy in venous thromboembolism management.
Updated time: 30 Apr 2021
Definition: Chronic inflammation is a major cause of human cancers. The environmental factors, such as microbiome, dietary components, and obesity, provoke chronic inflammation in the prostate, which promotes cancer development and progression. Crosstalk between immune cells and cancer cells enhances the secretion of intercellular signaling molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby orchestrating the generation of inflammatory microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play pivotal roles in inflammation-associated cancer by inhibiting effective anti-tumor immunity. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, metformin, and statins, have potential application in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory immunity-targeted therapies may provide novel strategies to treat patients with cancer. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents are expected to suppress the “vicious cycle” created by immune and cancer cells and inhibit cancer progression. This review has explored the immune cells that facilitate prostate cancer development and progression, with particular focus on the application of anti-inflammatory agents for both chemoprevention and therapeutic approach in prostate cancer.
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Definition: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a rare disorder and one of the most severe forms of polycystic kidney disease, leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in childhood. PKHD1 is the gene that is responsible for the vast majority of ARPKD. However, some cases have been related to a new gene that was recently identified (DZIP1L gene), as well as several ciliary genes that can mimic a ARPKD-like phenotypic spectrum. In addition, a number of molecular pathways involved in the ARPKD pathogenesis and progression were elucidated using cellular and animal models. However, the function of the ARPKD proteins and the molecular mechanism of the disease currently remain incompletely understood.
Updated time: 13 Aug 2021
Definition: The high occurrence of bladder cancer and its tendency to recur combined with lifelong surveillance make the treatment of superficial bladder cancer one of the most expensive and time-consuming. Moreover, carcinoma in situ often leads to muscle invasion with an unfavourable prognosis. Currently, invasive methods including cystoscopy and cytology remain a gold standard. The aim is to find biomarkers with the best specificity and sensitivity, allowing the treatment plan to optimise and have potential applications in clinical practice. Such non-invasive methods can be measure in human body fluids, for example, urine or serum: Cytokeratin fragments (CYFRA 21.1), Excision Repair Cross-Complementation 1 (ERCC1), Tumour Protein p53 (Tp53), Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3), Tumor-Associated Trypsin Inhibitor (TATI).
Entry Collection : Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors
Updated time: 26 May 2021
Definition: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with serious public health consequences due to its persistence within arable soils, and the ease with which it enters food chains and then, accumulates in human tissues to induce a broad range of adverse health effects. Diet is a primary exposure source for non-smoking populations, whilst cigarette smoke is an additional source of Cd among those who smoked. Cd exists in cigarette smoke as a non-volatile oxide form (CdO), and a volatile metallic form with high transmission rates. Of further concern, the electronegativity of Cd is similar to that of zinc (Zn), a nutritionally essential metal, whereas its ionic radius is similar to calcium (Ca) Thus, Cd can enter the body from the gut and lungs through the metal transporter systems and pathways evolved for acquisition and storage of Zn, Ca, and other nutritionally essential metals such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn).
Updated time: 14 May 2021
Definition: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the leading nosocomial infections in the world and have led to the extensive study of various strategies to prevent infection. However, despite an abundance of anti-infection materials having been studied over the last forty-five years, only a few types have come into clinical use, providing an insignificant reduction in CAUTIs. Marine resources have emerged as an unexplored area of opportunity offering huge potential in discovering novel bioactive materials to combat human diseases. To date, some marine microbial-derived materials have exhibited potent antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity against a broad spectrum of uropathogens (including multidrug-resistant pathogens) that could be potentially used in urinary catheters to eradicate CAUTIs.
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Definition: Gray scale ultrasound has an important diagnostic role in native kidney disease. Low cost, absence of ionizing radiation and nephrotoxicity, short performance time, and repeatability even at the bedside, are the major advantages of this technique. The introduction of contrast enhancement ultrasound (CEUS) in daily clinical practice has significantly reduced the use of contrast enhancement computed tomography (CECT) and contrast enhancement magnetic resonance (CEMR), especially in patients with renal disease.
Updated time: 12 Oct 2021
Definition: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common neoplasm among men. According to Cancer Research United Kingdom (UK) (, accessed on 26 May 2021) it is the second leading cause of cancer- related death in the UK. Locally advanced disease is curable, although metastatic disease has limited therapeutic options.
Updated time: 10 Sep 2021
Definition: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents 5 to 10% of urothelial carcinoma. Their mutational profile is different as compared to bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). While immune checkpoint inhibitors are now part of the therapeutic landscape of urothelial carcinoma, data concerning their use in UTUC patient’s treatment remain scarce. We reviewed the latest molecular characterization data and proposed an insight for future therapeutic strategies based on molecular alteration profiles.
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Definition: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most prevalent neoplasia of the urinary tract.