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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Koji Hatano
Definition: Chronic inflammation is a major cause of human cancers. The environmental factors, such as microbiome, dietary components, and obesity, provoke chronic inflammation in the prostate, which promotes cancer development and progression. Crosstalk between immune cells and cancer cells enhances the secretion of intercellular signaling molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby orchestrating the generation of inflammatory microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play pivotal roles in inflammation-associated cancer by inhibiting effective anti-tumor immunity. Anti-inflammatory agents, such as aspirin, metformin, and statins, have potential application in chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory immunity-targeted therapies may provide novel strategies to treat patients with cancer. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents are expected to suppress the “vicious cycle” created by immune and cancer cells and inhibit cancer progression. This review has explored the immune cells that facilitate prostate cancer development and progression, with particular focus on the application of anti-inflammatory agents for both chemoprevention and therapeutic approach in prostate cancer.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Submitted by: Shuai Zhang
Definition: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the leading nosocomial infections in the world and have led to the extensive study of various strategies to prevent infection. However, despite an abundance of anti-infection materials having been studied over the last forty-five years, only a few types have come into clinical use, providing an insignificant reduction in CAUTIs. Marine resources have emerged as an unexplored area of opportunity offering huge potential in discovering novel bioactive materials to combat human diseases. To date, some marine microbial-derived materials have exhibited potent antimicrobial, antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity against a broad spectrum of uropathogens (including multidrug-resistant pathogens) that could be potentially used in urinary catheters to eradicate CAUTIs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Wun-Jae Kim
Definition: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most prevalent neoplasia of the urinary tract.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Sep 2020
Definition: Fabry disease (FD; OMIM#301500) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with inherited or de novo disease causing variants in the α-galactosidase A gene (GLA; OMIM*300644). Reduced or even absent α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A; EC 3.2.1.22) activity leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipids with terminal α-D-galactosyl residues, especially globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) in plasma, urine and different organ systems, mainly cardiac, renal, endothelial and neuronal. The major physiological source of Gb3 is globoside, a glycolipid of erythrocytes and cells membranes found in different tissues. Kidneys are very frequently affected in patients with Fabry disease regardless of gender. Most important manifestations of Fabry nephropathy are proteinuria and slowly progressive chronic kidney disease, which can in some cases lead to end stage renal disease.
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Others
Updated time: 06 Nov 2020
Abstract: Emerging studies suggest that unsolved inflammation will progressively transit into kidney fibrosis that finally results in an irreversible end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increasing studies have suggested pathogenic roles of innate immunity in the kidney diseases. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may uncover a novel therapeutic strategy for ESRD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Farah Tamirou
Definition: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a frequent and severe manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. The main goal of the management of LN is to avoid chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lupus nephritis (LN) occurs in 12 to 69% of patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), depending on case series. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, it affects around 50% of SLE patients, while the rates of biopsy-proven LN are somewhat lower. LN is more prevalent in Asian than in African or Hispanic and European patients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Guido Gembillo
Definition: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disease that presents an estimated incidence of 1.3 cases per million per year, with a prevalence of 15.9 cases per million. It is characterized by hemolysis, bone marrow dysfunction with peripheral blood cytopenia, hypercoagulability, thrombosis, renal impairment and arterial and pulmonary hypertension. Hemolysis and subsequent hemosiderin accumulation in tubular epithelium cells induce tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Maria Sundvall
Definition: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer and correlates with the aggressiveness of the disease. PSMA is a promising target for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and theranostics in prostate cancer patients validated in recent prospective trials. Several clinical trials are currently ongoing to define the role of PSMA targeting radioligands in different settings and to evaluate the potential of other PSMA-based therapeutic modalities in prostate cancer.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Stefania Tamburrini
Definition: Ultrasound and computed tomography represent the imaging processes of choice in the diagnosis and staging pyonephrosis in emergency settings.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Submitted by: Yaseen Hussain
Definition: Prostate cancer is the second most leading and prevalent malignancy around the world, following lung cancer. Prostate cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. Prostate cancer morbidity and mortality have grown drastically, and intensive prostate cancer care is unlikely to produce adequate outcomes. The synthetic drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer in clinical practice face several challenges. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables. Apart from its beneficial effects, its plays a key role as an anti-cancer agent. Quercetin has shown anticancer potential, both alone and in combination.
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