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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Renata Paolilo
Definition: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disorder, characterized by polyfocal symptoms, encephalopathy and typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, that especially affects young children. Advances in understanding CNS neuroimmune disorders as well as the association of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) with both monophasic and recurrent forms of ADEM have led to new insights into its definition, management and outcome.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 May 2021
Submitted by: Bibhuti Das
Definition: A working definition of heart failure (HF) in children is “a progressive clinical and pathophysiological syndrome caused by cardiovascular and noncardiovascular abnormalities that results in characteristic signs and symptoms including edema, respiratory distress, growth failure, and exercise intolerance and accompanied by circulatory, neurohormonal, and molecular derangements”.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 May 2021
Submitted by: Dirk Reinhardt
Definition: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant, hematologic disease that accounts for about one-fifth of all childhood leukemia cases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Definition: General movements (GMs) are spontaneous movements of infants up to five months post-term involving the whole body varying in sequence, speed, and amplitude. The assessment of GMs has shown its importance for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits, especially for the detection of cerebral palsy. As the assessment is based on videos of the infant that are rated by trained professionals, the method is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence have gained significantly increased attention in the last years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Ho-Chang Kuo
Definition: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute childhood vasculitis syndrome that affects the walls of both small- and medium-sized blood vessels (vasculitis), especially coronary arteries. Anemia is a common clinical feature in KD patients and is thought to have a more prolonged duration of active inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the anemia in KD, possibility of hemolysis, the necessity of iron supplementation and importance of anemia in the pathogenesis of KD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Ho-Chang Kuo
Definition: A form of systemic vasculitis that affects mostly small and medium-sized vessels, Kawasaki disease (KD) is most commonly found in children under the age of 5 years old. Though its etiology is unknown, KD has been the most frequent acquired heart disease in developing countries. The most severe complications of KD are coronary artery lesions (CAL), including dilation, fistula, aneurysm, arterial remodeling, stenosis, and occlusion. Aneurysm formation has been observed in 20-25% of KD patients that do not receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, and in 3-5% that do receive it. Coronary artery dilation has been found in about 30% of KD patients in the acute stage, although mostly in the transient form. Diminishing the occurrence and regression of aneurysm is a vital part of treating KD. This review is focuing on coronary artery aneurysm prevention in KD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Valeria Calcaterra
Definition: Pediatric obesity is a multifaceted disease that can impact physical and mental health. It is a complex condition that interweaves biological, developmental, environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. In most cases lifestyle and behavioral modification as well as medical treatment led to poor short-term weight reduction and long-term failure. Thus, bariatric surgery should be considered in adolescents with moderate to severe obesity who have previously participated in lifestyle interventions with unsuccessful outcomes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Craig Robbins
Definition: Blount’s disease is an idiopathic developmental abnormality affecting the medial proximal tibia physis resulting in a multi-planar deformity with pronounced tibia varus. A single cause is unknown, and it is currently thought to result from a multifactorial combination of hereditary, mechanical, and developmental factors.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Radu-Iulian Spataru
Definition: Caudal duplication syndrome (CDS)is a rare association of anatomical anomalies describing duplication of the hindgut, spine, and uro-genital structures, leading to varied clinical presentations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Christos Yapijakis
Definition: Child and adolescent obesity constitute one of the greatest contemporary public health menaces. The enduring disproportion between calorie intake and energy consumption, determined by a complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, finally leads to the development of overweight and obesity. Child and adolescent overweight/obesity promotes smoldering systemic inflammation (“para-inflammation”) and increases the likelihood of later metabolic and cardiovascular complications, including metabolic syndrome and its components, which progressively deteriorate during adulthood. Exosomes are endosome-derived extracellular vesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells, are naturally taken-up by target cells, and may be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Over the last decade, intensive research has been conducted regarding the special role of exosomes and the non-coding (nc) RNAs they contain (primarily micro (mi) RNAs, long (l) non-coding RNAs, messenger (m) RNAs and other molecules) in inter-cellular communications. Through their action as communication mediators, exosomes may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and associated disorders. There is increasing evidence that exosomal miRNAs and lncRNAs are involved in pivotal processes of adipocyte biology and that, possibly, play important roles in gene regulation linked to human obesity.
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