Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Submitted by: Gizem Gulfidan
Definition: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths related to late diagnosis, poor survival rates, and high incidence of metastasis.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mauro Maccarrone
Definition: Gynaecological cancers can be primary neoplasms, originating either from the reproductive tract or the products of conception, or secondary neoplasms, representative of metastatic disease. For some of these cancers, the exact causes are unknown; however, it is recognised that the precise aetiopathogeneses for most are multifactorial and include exogenous (such as diet) and endogenous factors (such as genetic predisposition), which mutually interact in a complex manner. One factor that has been recognised to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of gynaecological cancers is the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists of endocannabinoids (bioactive lipids), their receptors, and metabolic enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
Submitted by: Beow Keat Yap
Definition: 14-3-3σ is an acidic homodimer protein with more than one hundred different protein partners associated with oncogenic signaling and cell cycle regulation.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Po-Yi Li
Definition: 3D models of cancer primarily refer to patient-derived xenografts, spheroids, and organoids and have been established for a variety of cancer types, including lung cancer. 3D lung cancer models have been demonstrated to more accurately model patient cancers and have the potential to advance basic, translational, and clinical studies.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Riccardo Rizzo
Definition: Pancreatic cancer is an extremely lethal malignancy with a survival rate lower than any other cancer type. For decades, two-dimensional (2D) cultures have been the cornerstone for studying cancer cell biology and drug testing, due to their simplicity and cost. However, their inability to reconstitute the tumor architecture, the absence of nutrient and oxygen supply gradients, as well as the lack of appropriate mechano-forces that mimic the extracellular microenvironment, make them an inadequate model to accurately reproduce tissue level-specific characteristics. Bioengineering systems, such as three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific models, are progressively emerging as systems better able to mimic the biology of pancreatic tumors and to test new anticancer therapies, as they more efficiently recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment characteristic of pancreatic tumors.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Jeffrey Traylor
Definition: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a porphyrin precursor in the heme synthesis pathway. When supplied exogenously, certain cancers consume 5-ALA and convert it to the fluorogenic metabolite protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), causing tumor-specific tissue fluorescence. Preoperative administration of 5-ALA is used to aid neurosurgical resection of high-grade gliomas such as glioblastoma, allowing for increased extent of resection and progression free survival for these patients. Targeting the heme synthesis pathway and understanding its dysregulation in malignant tissues could aid the development of adjunct therapies to increase intraoperative fluorescence after 5-ALA treatment
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jun 2020
Submitted by: Joon-Kee Yoon
Definition: 89Zr is an emerging radionuclide that plays an essential role in immuno‐positron emissiontomography (PET) imaging. Immuno‐PET combines the sensitivity of PET with the specificityof antibodies, and thus is useful for predicting the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy and antibody therapies, imaging target expression, detecting target‐expressing tumors, and the monitoring of anti‐cancer chemotherapies. PET using 89Zr is not confined to antibody imaging. In this review, wediscuss 89Zr‐PET applications other than immuno‐PET.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Alan Kumar
Definition: STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes which are involved in malignant transformation. Aberrant activation of STAT3 has been observed in a wide range of human malignancies and its role in negative prognosis is well-documented. In this report, we performed high-throughput virtual screening in search of STAT3 signaling inhibitors using a cheminformatics platform and identified 2-Amino-6-[2-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)-6-Hydroxyphenyl]-4-Piperidin-4-yl Nicotinonitrile (ACHP) as the inhibitor of the STAT3 signaling pathway. The predicted hit was evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines for its STAT3 inhibitory activity. In vitro experiments suggested that ACHP decreased the cell viability and inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 of NSCLC cells. In addition, ACHP imparted inhibitory activity on the constitutive activation of upstream protein tyrosine kinases, including JAK1, JAK2, and Src. ACHP decreased the nuclear translocation of STAT3 and downregulated its DNA binding ability. Apoptosis was evidenced by cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP with the subsequent decline in antiapoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and survivin. Overall, we report that ACHP can act as a potent STAT3 signaling inhibitor in NSCLC cell lines.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Shuyang Qin
Definition: Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) has emerged as a promising therapy for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic solid tumors. One challenge to finding a universal anticancer treatment is the heterogeneity present between different tumors as a result of genetic instability associated with tumorigenesis. As the epitome of personalized medicine, TIL-ACT bypasses the issue of intertumoral heterogeneity by utilizing the patient’s existing antitumor immune response. Despite being one of the few therapies capable of inducing durable, complete tumor regression, many patients fail to respond. Recent research has focused on increasing therapeutic efficacy by refining various aspects of the TIL protocol, which includes the isolation, ex vivo expansion, and subsequent infusion of tumor specific lymphocytes.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 29 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Marlon Arnone
Definition: Relapse after apparent remission remains a major cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). On the cellular level, leukemia relapse is considered to emerge from subpopulations of therapy-resistant leukemic stem cells (LSC). Identification and targeting of LSC are thus most important goals for AML treatment. However, AML and their LSC are highly heterogeneous.
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 61