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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Donna Geddes
Definition: Human milk promotes optimum growth, development, and health of the infant; however the mechanisms that govern both the variation of composition and the pathways by which it delivers benefits to the infant are not well understood. Increasingly maternal and environmental factors are being associated with milk composition. A recent systematic review indicated maternal adiposity was related to HM lactose and fat concentrations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Aleksandra Golonko
Definition: Natural carboxylic acids described in this paper are plant-derived compounds having biological activity. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the physicochemical properties of selected compounds naturally occurring in plants, their potential of microbiological and anticancer activity. In order to create targeted modifications of the structure enhancing its activity, it is; therefore, necessary to thoroughly understand the mechanisms of action of a given molecule under systemic conditions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Ruth Charles Shapu
Definition: Adolescents are young individuals that are between the ages of 10 and 19 years old. Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in an individual intake of energy and/or nutrients
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Qun Shen
Definition: Adzuki bean consumption has many health benefits, but its effects on obesity and regulating gut microbiota imbalances induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) have not been thoroughly studied. Mice were fed a low-fat diet, a HFD, and a HFD supplemented with 15% adzuki bean (HFD-AB) for 12 weeks. Adzuki bean supplementation significantly reduced obesity, lipid accumulation, and serum lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels induced by HFD. It also mitigated liver function damage and hepatic steatosis. In particular, adzuki bean supplementation improved glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin sensitivity. In addition, it significantly reversed HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalances. Adzuki bean significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B); enriched the occurrence of Bifidobacterium, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcus_1, norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Alloprevotella, Muribaculum, Turicibacter, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and Lachnoclostridium; and returned HFD-dependent taxa (Desulfovibrionaceae, Bilophila, Ruminiclostridium_9, Blautia, and Ruminiclostridium) back to normal status. PICRUSt2 analysis showed that the changes in gut microbiota induced by adzuki bean supplementation may be associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, sulfur, and cysteine and methionine; and LPS biosynthesis; and valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Antonello Santini
Definition: Aflatoxins family includes a great number of lipophilic molecules produced by aerobic micro fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the microfungi.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Geir Hetland
Definition: Extracts of the mushrooms also appear to be safe in preclinical and clinical studies. Whereas special focus has been on their antitumor effects, the mushrooms' anti-allergic properties have also been investigated. The anti-allergic mechanism was amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance. Here, a brief review is given of the preclinical and clinical findings with AbM and GF.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Wanda Zarzycka
Definition: Diets that are high in added sugars and saturated fat have an impact on cognitive functioning, especially on memory. Cognitive task performance worsens with age. However, the frequency of consuming different types of foods (healthy versus unhealthy dietary patterns) moderates the effects of age on cognitive functioning. Different indices of dietary patterns (both positive and negative) seem to be strong predictors of cognitive performance in the older adult group.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Jung hyun Shim
Definition: Global environmental pollution has led to human exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to the damaged ozone layer, thereby increasing the incidence and death rate of skin cancer including both melanoma and non-melanoma. Overexpression and activation of V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT, also known as protein kinase B) and related signaling pathways are major factors contributing to many cancers including lung cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and skin cancer. Although BRAF inhibitors are used to treat melanoma, further options are needed due to treatment resistance and poor efficacy. Depletion of AKT expression and activation, and related signaling cascades by its inhibitors, decreases the growth of skin cancer and metastasis. Here we have focused the effects of AKT and related signaling (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathways by regulators derived from plants and suggest the need for efficient treatment in skin cancer therapy.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Miguel Prieto Lage
Definition: Almond (Prunus dulcis(Mill.) D. A. Webb, Prunus amygdalus Batch, or Amygdalus communis L.) constitutes the most produced nut worldwide, thanks to its exceptional nutritional composition, including low sugar content, high levels of proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals, as well as health-enhancing phytochemicals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Bonny Burns-Whitmore
Definition: Good sources of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include cold-water fish and seafood; however, vegan diets (VGNs) do not include animal-origin foods.
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