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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Aleksandra Golonko
Definition: Natural carboxylic acids described in this paper are plant-derived compounds having biological activity. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the physicochemical properties of selected compounds naturally occurring in plants, their potential of microbiological and anticancer activity. In order to create targeted modifications of the structure enhancing its activity, it is; therefore, necessary to thoroughly understand the mechanisms of action of a given molecule under systemic conditions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Ruth Charles Shapu
Definition: Adolescents are young individuals that are between the ages of 10 and 19 years old. Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in an individual intake of energy and/or nutrients
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Antonello Santini
Definition: Aflatoxins family includes a great number of lipophilic molecules produced by aerobic micro fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by the microfungi.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Geir Hetland
Definition: Extracts of the mushrooms also appear to be safe in preclinical and clinical studies. Whereas special focus has been on their antitumor effects, the mushrooms' anti-allergic properties have also been investigated. The anti-allergic mechanism was amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance. Here, a brief review is given of the preclinical and clinical findings with AbM and GF.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Jung hyun Shim
Definition: Global environmental pollution has led to human exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to the damaged ozone layer, thereby increasing the incidence and death rate of skin cancer including both melanoma and non-melanoma. Overexpression and activation of V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT, also known as protein kinase B) and related signaling pathways are major factors contributing to many cancers including lung cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and skin cancer. Although BRAF inhibitors are used to treat melanoma, further options are needed due to treatment resistance and poor efficacy. Depletion of AKT expression and activation, and related signaling cascades by its inhibitors, decreases the growth of skin cancer and metastasis. Here we have focused the effects of AKT and related signaling (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathways by regulators derived from plants and suggest the need for efficient treatment in skin cancer therapy.
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Biography
Updated time: 10 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Amelia Marti
Abstract: Amelia Marti is a Full Professor in Physiology at the University of Navarra (Spain). Her reserach area is Obesity and Metabolism with more than 270 articles in peer-reviewed journals and her h-index is, at present, 47, with 10,000 citations. She has supervised more than 16 Doctoral Thesis with National (Royal Academy of Doctors, Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado) and International Prizes (Ibero-American Academy of Pharmacy, Best Thesis Award of the European Society of Obesity), and 40 Master and Graduate Research works.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Myoungsook Lee
Definition: Anthocyanin is a natural soluble pigment in the flavonoid group. Approximately 635 or more structures have been found in nature and more than 30 types of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins have been identified based on the number and position of the hydroxyl group. The common aglycones are pelargonidin (Pg), cyanidin (Cy), peonidin (Pn), delphinidin (Dp), petunidin (Pt), and malvidin (Mv), but Cy-3-glucoside was widely distributed. Anthocyanins are mostly absorbed through the gastric wall with absorption rates of 10–22%, depending on chemical structure, and the bioavailability is approximately 0.26–1.8%. Anthocyanins produce antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in the prevention and treatment of numerous chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), eye diseases, and in suppressing cancer cell growth.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Alyssa Francavilla
Definition: Anthocyanins are water-soluble phenolic pigments responsible for red, purple, blue, or even black colours in fruits, vegetables, grains, flowers, and other pigmented plant tissues. All anthocyanins share the same core structure, a flavylium ion, consisting of two aromatic ring structures linked by a three-carbon heterocyclic ring that contains oxygen. The anthocyanidin (aglycone form) is the core structure of the anthocyanin. The addition of a sugar side chain results in the glycosidic form of the anthocyanidin molecule, called an anthocyanin.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Evangelia Tsiani
Definition: Cancer is characterized by unrestricted cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, enhanced invasion and migration, and deregulation of signaling cascades. These properties lead to uncontrolled growth, enhanced survival, and the formation of tumors. Carnosol, a naturally occurring phyto-polyphenol (diterpene) found in rosemary, has been studied for its extensive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. In cancer cells, carnosol has been demonstrated to inhibit cell proliferation and survival, reduce migration and invasion, and significantly enhance apoptosis. These anticancer effects of carnosol are mediated by the inhibition of several signaling molecules including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, carnosol prevents the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and promotes apoptosis, as indicated by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic marker Bcl-2-associated X (BAX), and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2).
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Evangelia Tsiani
Definition: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Current preventative and treatment strategies for T2DM and insulin resistance lack in efficacy resulting in the need for new approaches to prevent and manage/treat the disease better. In recent years, epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in fruits and vegetables have beneficial health effects including protection against insulin resistance and T2DM. Curcumin, a polyphenol found in turmeric, and curcuminoids have been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective, immunomodulatory and antidiabetic properties. Here we are summarizing the existing in vitro studies examining the antidiabetic effects of curcumin.
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