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Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked recessive chorioretinal dystrophy caused by mutations involving the CHM gene. Gene therapy has entered late-phase clinical trials, although there have been variable results.
Besides their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, it has become increasingly clear that platelets are also involved in many other pathological processes of the vascular system, such as atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease, which preferentially develops at sites under disturbed blood flow with low speeds and chaotic directions. Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are all risk factors for atherosclerosis. When the vascular microenvironment changes, platelets can respond quickly to interact with endothelial cells and leukocytes, participating in atherosclerosis.
Osteoporosis is a disease having adverse effects on bone health and causing fragility fractures. Osteoporosis affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and nearly 9 million fractures occur annually. Evidence exists that, in addition to traditional risk factors, certain environmental substances may increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Bone tissue engineering aims at delivering novel methods for treating bone tissue deficiencies of-ten resulting from polytrauma, pathological fractures, and osteonecrosis as there is an increasing need to provide functional replacement grafts for the patients.
Organic and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have shown promising outcomes in transdermal drug delivery. NPs can not only enhance the skin penetration of small/biomacromolecule therapeutic agents but also can impart control over drug release or target impaired tissue. Thanks to their unique optical, photothermal, and superparamagnetic features, NPs have been also utilized for the treatment of skin disorders, imaging, and biosensing applications. Despite the widespread transdermal applications of NPs, their delivery across the stratum corneum, which is the main skin barrier, has remained challenging. Microneedle array (MN) technology has recently revealed promising outcomes in the delivery of various formulations, especially NPs to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic agents.
Cerebellar degeneration has been associated in patients with epilepsy, though the exact pathogenic mechanisms are not understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of cerebellar degeneration in patients with epilepsy and identify any pathogenic mechanisms. Methodology: A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted using the PubMed database. Data extracted included prevalence, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropathological characteristics of patients with epilepsy and cerebellar degeneration. Results: We identified three consistent predictors of cerebellar degeneration in the context of epilepsy in our review: temporal lobe epilepsy, poor seizure control, and phenytoin as the treatment modality. Whole brain and hippocampal atrophy were also identified in patients with epilepsy. Conclusions: Cerebellar degeneration is prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Further prospective studies are required to confirm if the predictors identified in this review are indeed linked to cerebellar degeneration and to establish the pathogenic mechanisms that result in cerebellar insult.
Scaffold proteins are typically thought of as multi-domain “bridging molecules.” They serve as crucial regulators of key signaling events by simultaneously binding multiple participants involved in specific signaling pathways. In the case of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) binding, the activated EGFR contacts cytosolic SRC tyrosine-kinase, which then becomes activated. This process leads to the phosphorylation of SRC-substrates, including the tyrosine kinase substrates (TKS) scaffold proteins. The TKS proteins serve as a platform for the recruitment of key players in EGFR signal transduction, promoting cell spreading and migration. The TKS4 and the TKS5 scaffold proteins are tyrosine kinase substrates with four or five SH3 domains, respectively. Their structural features allow them to recruit and bind a variety of signaling proteins and to anchor them to the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane. TKS4 and TKS5 had been recognized for their involvement in cellular motility, reactive oxygen species-dependent processes, and embryonic development. Furthermore, TKS4 has also been implicated in the regulation of homeostasis of mature adipose and bone tissue.
The tumor suppressor p53 is considered the “guardian of the genome” that can protect cells against cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest followed by cell death. However, STAT3 is constitutively activated in several human cancers and plays crucial roles in promoting cancer cell proliferation and survival. Hence, STAT3 and p53 have opposing roles in cellular pathway regulation, as activation of STAT3 upregulates the survival pathway, whereas p53 triggers the apoptotic pathway. Constitutive activation of STAT3 and gain or loss of p53 function due to mutations are the most frequent events in numerous cancer types. Several studies have reported the association of STAT3 and/or p53 mutations with drug resistance in cancer treatment. This review discusses the relationship between STAT3 and p53 status in cancer, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of p53 by STAT3, and vice versa. Moreover, it underlines prospective therapies targeting both STAT3 and p53 to enhance chemotherapeutic outcomes.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection induces a clinical syndrome usually associated with hearing loss. However, the effect of acquired CVM infection in adults and children has not been clearly defined.
The incidence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) is less or equal to one case per one hundred thousand people per-year, and they account for roughly 5% of all pancreatic cancers. However, in the last few decades, their incidence has risen.