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Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: The research for innovative treatments against colon adenocarcinomas is still a great challenge. Acacia catechu Willd. heartwood extract (AC) has health-promoting qualities, especially at gastrointestinal level. This study characterized AC for its catechins content and investigates the apoptotic-enhancing effect in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, along with its ability to spare healthy tissue. Results showed that AC induced an increase in apoptotic cells and ROS formation, reduction in mitochondria membrane potential as well as increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity. AC did not affect rat ileum and colon rings viability and functionality, suggesting its safe profile toward healthy tissue. The present findings outline the potential of AC for colon cancer treatment.
Updated time: 27 Jan 2021
Definition: The incidence of acute and chronic pancreatitis is increasing in the United States. Rates of acute pancreatitis (AP) are similar in both sexes, but chronic pancreatitis (CP) is more common in males. When stratified by etiology, women have higher rates of gallstone AP, while men have higher rates of alcohol- and tobacco-related AP and CP, hypercalcemic AP, hypertriglyceridemic AP, malignancy-related AP, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Definition: Advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Immunotherapy including the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab have been approved for use in various treatment settings in GEC.
Updated time: 30 Mar 2021
Definition: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). with colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) being a progressive intestinal inflammation due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While this is an exemplification of the negatives of inflammation, it is just as crucial to have some degree of the inflammatory process to maintain a healthy immune system. A pivotal component in the maintenance of such intestinal homeostasis is the innate immunity component, inflammasomes. Inflammasomes are large, cytosolic protein complexes formed following stimulation of microbial and stress signals that lead to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been extensively studied in part due to its strong association with colitis and CAC. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently been acknowledged for its connection to the immune system aside from its role as an environmental sensor. AhR has been described to play a role in the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation pathway. The NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the most extensively studied NLRs due to its clinical relevance in a wide range of human diseases. This 115 kDa cytosolic protein complex consists of a triadic constitution; the NACHT scaffold which serves as a central oligomerization domain with an ATPase activity, the N-terminal PYCARD adaptor which recruits the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and the C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) which are thought to be involved in detecting stimuli.
Updated time: 19 Apr 2021
Definition: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease, exposing to the risk of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Updated time: 08 Feb 2021
Definition: Public healthcare systems all over the world are faced with a great challenge in this respect. Obviously, there are many bacteria that can cause infections in humans and animals alike, but somehow it seems that the greatest threat nowadays comes from the Enterobacteriaceae members, especially Escherichia coli.
Updated time: 08 Dec 2020
Definition: Autoimmune atrophic gastritis is an organ-specific immune-mediated condition characterized by atrophy of the oxyntic mucosa. Autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AIG) is characterized by a progressive loss of acid-secreting parietal cells leading to hypo-achlorhydria. Due to this peculiar intra-gastric environment, gastric microbiota composition in individuals with autoimmune atrophic gastritis was first supposed and then recently reported to be different from subjects with a normal acidic healthy stomach. Recent data confirm the prominent role of Helicobacter pylori as the main bacterium responsible for gastric disease and long-term complications. However, other bacteria than Helicobacter pylori, for example, Streptococci, were found in subjects who developed gastric cancer and in subjects at risk of this fearful complication, as well as those with autoimmune gastritis. Gastric microbiota composition is challenging to study due to the acidic gastric environment, the difficulty of obtaining representative samples of the entire gastric microbiota, and the possible contamination by oral or throat microorganisms, which can potentially lead to the distortion of the original gastric microbial composition, but innovative molecular approaches based on the analysis of the hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene have been developed, permitting us to obtain an overall microbial composition view of the RNA gene that is present only in prokaryotic cells.
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Definition: Given that endoscopic findings can be used to predict the potential of neoplastic progression in Barrett’s esophagus (BE) cases, the detection rate of dysplastic Barrett’s lesions may become higher even in laborious endoscopic surveillance because a special attention is consequently paid. However, endoscopic findings for effective detection of the risk of neoplastic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have not been confirmed, though some typical appearances are suggestive. In the present review, endoscopic findings that can be used predict malignant potential to EAC in BE cases are discussed. Conventional results obtained with white light endoscopy, such as length of BE, presence of esophagitis, ulceration, hiatal hernia and nodularity, are used as indicators of a higher risk of neoplastic progression. However, there are controversies in some of those findings. Absence of palisade vessels may be also a new candidate predictor, as that reveals degree of intense inflammation and of cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression with accelerated cellular proliferation. Furthermore, an open type of mucosal pattern and enriched stromal blood vessels, which can be observed by image-enhanced endoscopy including narrow band imaging, have been confirmed as factors useful for prediction of neoplastic progression of BE because they indicate more frequent cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression along with accelerated cellular proliferation. Should the malignant potential of BE be shown predictable by these endoscopic findings, that would simplify methods used for an effective surveillance, because patients requiring careful monitoring would be more easily identified. Development in the near future of a comprehensive scoring system for BE based on clinical factors, biomarkers and endoscopic predictors is required.
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Definition: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), cardiac dysfunction in end-stage liver disease in the absence of prior heart disease, is an important clinical entity that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. The original definition for CCM, established in 2005 at the World Congress of Gastroenterology (WCG), was based upon known echocardiographic parameters to identify subclinical cardiac dysfunction in the absence of overt structural abnormalities. Subsequent advances in cardiovascular imaging and in particular myocardial deformation imaging have rendered the WCG criteria outdated. A number of investigations have explored other factors relevant to CCM, including serum markers, electrocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. CCM characteristics include a hyperdynamic circulatory state, impaired contractility, altered diastolic relaxation, and electrophysiological abnormalities, particularly QT interval prolongation. It is now known that cardiac dysfunction worsens with the progression of cirrhosis. Treatment for CCM has traditionally been limited to supportive efforts, but new pharmacological studies appear promising. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in CCM can be improved by targeted heart rate reduction. Ivabradine combined with carvedilol improves left ventricular diastolic dysfunction through targeted heart rate reduction, and this regimen can improve survival in patients with cirrhosis. Orthotopic liver transplantation also appears to improve CCM.
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
Updated time: 04 Mar 2021
Definition: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome and now seemingly affects one-fourth of the world population. Several features associated with NAFLD have frequently been linked to cognitive dysfunction, i.e. systemic inflammation, impaired urea synthesis, vascular dysfunction, gut dysbiosis, and sleep apnoea. Considering the growing burden of NAFLD, the morbidity from cognitive dysfunction is expected to have huge societal and economic impact. Here, a review of the clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction in NAFLD is provided.