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Updated time: 11 Sep 2021
Definition: Malignant melanoma can rarely present with unusual staining patterns. This includes aberrant expression of non-melanocytic markers and/ or lack of expression of specific melanocytic markers.
Updated time: 29 Sep 2021
Definition: Acne inversa, namely, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting ~1% of the global population. HS typically occurs after puberty, with the average age of onset in the second or third decades of life and with a female predominance. Approximately one third of patients are genetically predisposed. Moreover, lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, play a crucial role in the clinical course of HS.
Updated time: 23 Aug 2021
Definition: Animal-type melanoma (ATM) was first described in the literature by Levene in 1979 in relation to a patient with a characteristic clinical presentation, and only later, rare and anecdotal case series have tried to shed light on an entity that has undergone several nosographic classification changes, and which, since 2018, is classified under the term “pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma”. Here, researchers conduct a brief review of the current literature on ATM and present a new clinical case with histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular investigations.
Updated time: 06 Sep 2021
Definition: Artificial intelligence applied to pathological anatomyhas attracted a particular interest from pathologists and, in more detail, also from dermatopathologists. Increasing attention is being paid to the applications of AI and ML in the diagnosis of simple or more complex skin lesions, and the training of AI algorithms is gathering increasing feedback from the scientific community.
Updated time: 26 Sep 2021
Definition: Astaxanthin (AST) is a biomolecule known for its powerful antioxidant effect, which is considered of great importance in biochemical research and has great potential for application in cosmetics, as well as food products that are beneficial to human health and medicines. Unfortunately, its poor solubility in water, chemical instability, and low oral bioavailability make its applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical field a major challenge for the development of new products. To favor the search for alternatives to enhance and make possible the use of AST in formulations, this article aimed to review the scientific data on its application in delivery systems.
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Definition: Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the bronchial mucosa affecting 10% of children and 5% of adults in Western countries.
Updated time: 30 Sep 2021
Definition: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that can arise during the first months of life or at maturity and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. The main pathogenic mechanism is the breakdown of cutaneous barrier integrity, which is associated with systemic inflammatory immunologic disorders. Atopic dermatitis involves numerous immunologic, allergic, respiratory, and ophthalmologic comorbidities that develop through similar intricate pathogenic phenomena.
Updated time: 14 Mar 2021
Definition: This review presents the common commercially available skin substitutes and their clinical use. Moreover, the choice of an appropriate hydrogel type to prepare cell-laden skin substitutes is discussed. Additionally, we present recent advances in the field of bioengineered human skin substitutes using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques. Finally, we discuss different skin substitute developments to meet different criteria for optimal wound healing.
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Definition: Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated skin disease resulting from epithelial and immunological cells’ interactions, which affects around 2% of the population worldwide. Its onset is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, particularly infections among which Streptococcus pyogenes is the best characterized. However, the commensal fungusCandida albicans has been also associated to triggering psoriasis. Here we discuss what it is known about the link betweeen Candida and psoriasis pathogenesis.
Updated time: 02 Sep 2021
Definition: The healing of wounds is still one of the challenging clinical problems for which an efficient and fast treatment is needed. Therefore, recent studies have created a new generation of wound dressings which can accelerate the wound healing process with minimum side effects. Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, is an attractive candidate for preparing biocompatible dressings. The biodegradability, non-toxicity and antibacterial activity of chitosan have made it a promising biopolymer for treating wounds. Graphene oxide has also been considered by researchers as a non-toxic, inexpensive, and biocompatible material for wound healing applications. This review discusses the potential use of chitosan/graphene oxide composite films and their application in wound dressing and drug delivery systems.