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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Gerardo Cazzato
Definition: Animal-type melanoma (ATM) was first described in the literature by Levene in 1979 in relation to a patient with a characteristic clinical presentation, and only later, rare and anecdotal case series have tried to shed light on an entity that has undergone several nosographic classification changes, and which, since 2018, is classified under the term “pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma”. Here, researchers conduct a brief review of the current literature on ATM and present a new clinical case with histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular investigations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ibon Eguíluz-Gracia
Definition: Asthma is an inflammatory condition of the bronchial mucosa affecting 10% of children and 5% of adults in Western countries.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Shima Tavakoli
Definition: This review presents the common commercially available skin substitutes and their clinical use. Moreover, the choice of an appropriate hydrogel type to prepare cell-laden skin substitutes is discussed. Additionally, we present recent advances in the field of bioengineered human skin substitutes using three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques. Finally, we discuss different skin substitute developments to meet different criteria for optimal wound healing.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Carmen de Jesús Gil
Definition: Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated skin disease resulting from epithelial and immunological cells’ interactions, which affects around 2% of the population worldwide. Its onset is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, particularly infections among which Streptococcus pyogenes is the best characterized. However, the commensal fungusCandida albicans has been also associated to triggering psoriasis. Here we discuss what it is known about the link betweeen Candida and psoriasis pathogenesis.
Entry Collection : Skin Pathologies
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Jun 2021
Definition: Antioxidants are molecules that delay or inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Its use significantly increased in recent years in the diet of people. Natural antioxidants are replacing the use of synthetic antioxidant ingredients due to their safety, nutritional, and therapeutic values. Hydrolyzed collagen (HC) is a popular ingredient considered to be an antioxidant. This low molecular weight protein has been widely utilized due to its excellent biocompatibility, easy biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. It is a safe cosmetic biomaterial with good moisturizing properties on the skin. The antioxidant properties of HC are conditioned to the size of the molecule: the lower the molecular weight of peptides, the greater the ability to donate an electron or hydrogen to stabilize radicals. The antioxidant capacity of HC is mostly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide. The exact mechanism of peptides acting as antioxidants is not clearly known but some aromatic amino acids and histidine are reported to play an important role in the antioxidant activity. Oral ingestion of HC increases the levels of collagen-derived peptides in the blood torrent and improves the skin properties such as elasticity, skin moisture, and transepidermal water loss.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Vincenzo Piccolo
Definition: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a complex autosomal dominant disorder associated with germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. NF1 belongs to a class of congenital anomaly syndromes called RASopathies, a group of rare genetic conditions caused by mutations in the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Generally, NF1 patients present with dermatologic manifestations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Daniel Vasile Balaban
Definition: Pancreatic pathology, comprising acute and chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic neoplasms, primarily presents with gastrointestinal symptoms and signs; however, it is well recognized that it can also associate a wide range of extra-digestive features. Among these systemic manifestations, cutaneous involvement plays an important role both as a diagnostic clue for the pancreatic disease itself and serving as a prognostic factor for the severity of the condition.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Tak-Wah Wong
Definition: Daylight photodynamic therapy (dPDT) uses sunlight as a light source to treat superficial skin cancer. Using sunlight as a therapeutic device has been present for centuries, forming the basis of photodynamic therapy in the 20th century. Compared to conventional PDT, dPDT can be a less painful, more convenient and an effective alternative. The first clinical uses of dPDT on skin cancers began in Copenhagen in 2008. Currently, aminolevulinic acid-mediated dPDT has been approved to treat actinic keratosis patients in Europe.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Tsvetelina Velikova
Definition: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a blistering dermatosis, which shares common immunologic features with celiac disease (CD).
Entry Collection : Gastrointestinal Disease
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Isabel Andia
Definition: Skin is a large and complex organ that serves protective and regulatory functions and is responsible for communication between the external environment and the inner organism. To fulfill these functions, skin has evolved as an organ with a complex anatomy derived from both the ectoderm (epidermis) and mesoderm (dermis). The skin includes not only these two major compartments but also important appendages, including hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels, all of which have intricate spatial arrangements that render fabrication of the full skin organ challenging.
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