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Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Definition: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are the only drugs that have demonstrated success in slowing shrinkage (atrophy) of the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain, major areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated brain damage and dementia. The main barrier to taking advantage of this new success in treating, or even preventing, AD is that the old available AChE inhibitors are weakreversible inhibitors that cause intolerable nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea if given in the higher doses needed. A promising new strategy for producing high-level AChE inhibition in the brain as needed for effective treatment of AD is the use of AChE inhibitors that are of a different type, the irreversible inhibitors.
Updated time: 09 Dec 2020
Definition: In the last two decades, non-traditional sports activities characterized by elements such as speed, height, and exposure to natural forces knew a rapid increase in global participation. They are generally referred to as action sports (AS), with the terms adventure sports or extreme sports that could be used as interchangeable synonyms.
Updated time: 13 Sep 2021
Definition: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following ischemic stroke (IS) contributes to hemorrhagic transformation, brain edema, increased neural dysfunction, secondary injury, and mortality. Brain endothelial cells form a para and transcellular barrier to most blood-borne solutes via tight junctions (TJs) and rare transcytotic vesicles. The prevailing view attributes the destruction of TJs to the resulting BBB damage following IS, recent studies define a stepwise impairment of the transcellular barrier followed by the paracellular barrier which accounts for the BBB leakage in IS. The increased endothelial transcytosis that has been proven to be caveolae-mediated, precedes and is independent of TJs disintegration. Thus, our understanding of post-stroke BBB deficits needs to be revised, these recent findings could provide a conceptual basis for the development of alternative treatment strategies. Presently, our concept of how BBB endothelial transcytosis develops is incomplete and treatment options remain limited. This entry summarizes the cellular structure and biological classification of endothelial transcytosis at the BBB and reviews the related molecular mechanisms. Meanwhile, relevant transcytosis-targeted therapeutic strategies for IS and research entry points are prospected.
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Definition: Dysphagia is often unrecognized because many people are unfamiliar with symptoms and signs of dysphagia besides choking during swallowing. Dysphagia screening is therefore important. A good screening should be a quick process and minimally invasive but can determine the likelihood of dysphagia. Here, an algorithm for dysphagia screening is introduced. The algorithm can be used for people unspecialized in dysphagia.
Updated time: 29 Jun 2021
Abstract: Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) has strong connection with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is considered the most common disorder of synucleinopathy, which is characterised by intracellular inclusions of aggregated and misfolded α-syn protein in various brain regions, and the loss of dopaminergic neurons. During the early prodromal phase of PD, synaptic alterations happen before cell death, which is linked to the synaptic accumulation of toxic α-syn specifically in the presynaptic terminals, affecting neurotransmitter release. The oligomers and protofibrils of α-syn are the most toxic species, and their overexpression impairs the distribution and activation of synaptic proteins, such as the SNARE complex, preventing neurotransmitter exocytosis and neuronal synaptic communication. In the last few years, the role of the immune system in PD has been increasingly considered. Microglial and astrocyte activation, the gene expression of proinflammatory factors, and the infiltration of immune cells from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS) represent the main features of the inflammatory response. One of the actors of these processes is α-syn accumulation.
Updated time: 20 Feb 2021
Definition: Many observational and clinical studies have shown that consumption of diets rich in plant polyphenols have beneficial effects on various diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Animal and cellular studies have indicated that these polyphenolic compounds contribute to such effects. The representative polyphenols are epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in tea, chlorogenic acids in coffee, resveratrol in wine, and curcumin in curry. The results of human studies have suggested the beneficial effects of consumption of these foods on NDDs, espacially Alzheimer's disease and cellular animal experiments have provided molecular basis to indicate contribution of these representative polyphenols to these effects. This article provides updated information on the effects of these foods and their polyphenols on Alzheimer's disease with discussions on mechanistic aspects of their actions mainly based on the findings derived from basic experiments.
Updated time: 29 Sep 2020
Definition: Astrocyte-neuron crosstalk is a phenomenon in which both of those cell types depend on each other and support their development, genes expression, metabolism, excitability and plasticity. Astrocyte–neuron crosstalk incontrovertibly plays a crucial role in shaping neuronal metabolism. It has been shown that it substantially affects the expression of basal metabolic enzymes in both types of cells, by essentially unknown factor(s) which are released to extracellular space directly and using extracellular vesicles-packed molecules and by cell-to-cell contacts. Additionally, astrocytes support neurons with lactate, which (when secreted during enhanced neuronal activity events) stimulates a formation and maintenece of long-term plastycity phenomena in neurons.
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Definition: Astrocytes are cerebral cells present in number close to that on neurons (50-60 mld). For decades they were considered only a glue, offering a mechanical and metaboli
Updated time: 10 Mar 2021
Definition: Autism Spectrum Disorder etiopathogenesis is still unclear, no effective preventive and treatment measures have been identified. Research has focused on the potential role of neuroinflammation and kynurenine pathway. Pre-natal or neonatal infections would induce microglial activation, with secondary consequences on behavior, cognition and neurotransmitter networks. Peripherally higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-brain antibodies have been identified. Increased frequency of autoimmune diseases, allergies, and recurring infections have been demonstrated both in autistic patients and in their relatives. Genetic studies, also, have identified some important polymorphisms in chromosome loci related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. The persistence of immune-inflammatory deregulation, would lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, creating a self-sustaining cytotoxic loop.Chronic inflammation actives kynurenine pathway with increase in neurotoxic metabolites and excitotoxicity, causing long-term changes in glutamatergic function, trophic support and synaptic function. Furthermore, overactivation of kynurenines branch, induces depletion of melatonin and serotonin, with ASD symptoms worsening.According to those findings, in subjects genetically predisposed an aberrant neurodevelopment derives by a complex interplay between inflammatory process, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, kynurenine pathway overactivation.To validate the previous hypothesis a new translational research approach is necessary.
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Definition: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the formation of intracellular aggregate composed of heavily phosphorylated tau protein and extracellular deposit of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques derived from proteolysis cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Autophagy refers to the lysosomal-mediated degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, which plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Importantly, recent studies reported that dysregulation of autophagy is associated in the pathogenesis of AD, and therefore, autophagy modulation has gained attention as a promising approach to treat AD pathogenesis. In AD, both the maturation of autolysosomes and its retrograde transports have been obstructed, which causes the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and eventually leads to degenerating and dystrophic neurites function. However, the mechanism of autophagy modulation in APP processing and its pathogenesis have not yet been fully elucidated in AD. In the early stage of AD, APP processing and Aβ accumulation-mediated autophagy facilitate the removal of toxic protein aggregates via mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. In addition, a number of autophagy-related genes (Atg) and APP are thought to influence the development of AD, providing a bidirectional link between autophagy and AD pathology.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences