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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Omar Hahad
Definition: Aging is a multifactorial dynamic process that is influenced by a variety of external and internal variables, including environmental, demographic, and biopsychosocial factors, to determine the development and progression of age-related diseases, rather than being a solely static intrinsic process of cellular alterations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 May 2021
Submitted by: Thomas J. Hund
Definition: The cardiac conduction system is an extended network of excitable tissue tasked with generation and propagation of electrical impulses to signal coordinated contraction of the heart. The fidelity of this system depends on the proper spatio-temporal regulation of ion channels in myocytes throughout the conduction system. Importantly, inherited or acquired defects in a wide class of ion channels has been linked to dysfunction at various stages of the conduction system resulting in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Members of the ankyrin and spectrin families have emerged as important nodes for normal expression and regulation of ion channels in myocytes throughout the conduction system. Human variants impacting ankyrin/spectrin function give rise to a broad constellation of cardiac arrhythmias. Furthermore, chronic neurohumoral and biomechanical stress promotes ankyrin/spectrin loss of function that likely contributes to conduction disturbances in the setting of acquired cardiac disease.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Roberto Carnevale
Definition: Oxidative stress may be defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system to counteract or detoxify these potentially damaging molecules. This phenomenon is a common feature of many human disorders such as cardiovascular disease. Many of the risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and obesity are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease involving an elevated oxidative stress burden, either due to enhanced ROS production or decreased antioxidant protection. There is a number of therapeutic options to treat oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have focused on the utility of antioxidant supplementation. However, whether antioxidant supplementation has any preventive and/or therapeutic value in cardiovascular pathology is still a matter of debate.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Zeynettin Akkus
Definition: Echocardiography (Echo), a widely available, noninvasive, and portable bedside imaging tool, is the most frequently used imaging modality in assessing cardiac anatomy and function in clinical practice. Artificial-intelligence-empowered echo (AI-Echo) can potentially reduce inter-interpreter variability and indeterminate assessment and improve the detection of unique conditions as well as the management of various cardiac disorders.
Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Oliver Faust
Definition: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a heart rhythm disorder. Hence, AF diagnosis is based on measurements which reflect the activity of the heart. Detectable symptoms of the disease might not be present all the time. Therefore, the measurement duration is positively correlated with the AF detection rate. Suitable measurements include photoplethysmogram, electrocardiogram, and heart rate. The data volume, produced through long term measurement, mandates computer support to automate the AF detection task.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Attila Frigy
Definition: Interatrial block associated with atrial arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation, define the Bayés’ Syndrome (called after Bayés de Luna, a proeminent cardiologist, who published the seminal paper about the problem of P-wave anomalies and interatrial blocks). Finding the signs of interatrial block on ECG represents a call for active screening of atrial fibrillation and starting of prophylactic anticoagulation in selected patients.
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Harpreet Singh
Definition: Large Conductance Calcium and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels (BKCa). Also known as Slowpoke, KCa1.1, and MaxiK channels.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ali Zolfagharian
Definition: In our unique transdisciplinary approach, we studied the fundamentals of blood pressure and examined its measuring modalities while focusing on their clinical use and sensing principles to identify material functionalities. Then, we carefully reviewed various categories of functional materials utilized in sensor building blocks allowing for comparative analysis of the performance of a wide range of materials throughout the sensor operational-life cycle. Not only this provides essential data to enhance the materials’ properties and optimize their performance, but also, it highlights new perspectives and provides suggestions to develop the next generation pressure sensors for clinical use.
Topic review
Updated time: 17 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Ahmed Sheriff
Definition: Almost every kind of inflammation in the human body is accompanied by rising C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. This can include bacterial and viral infection, chronic inflammation and so-called sterile inflammation triggered by (internal) acute tissue injury. CRP is part of the ancient humoral immune response and secreted into the circulation by the liver upon respective stimuli. Its main immunological functions are the opsonization of biological particles (bacteria and dead or dying cells) for their clearance by macrophages and the activation of the classical complement pathway. This not only helps to eliminate pathogens and dead cells, which is very useful in any case, but unfortunately also to remove only slightly damaged or inactive human cells that may potentially regenerate with more CRP-free time. CRP action severely aggravates the extent of tissue damage during the acute phase response after an acute injury and therefore negatively affects clinical outcome. CRP is therefore a promising therapeutic target to rescue energy-deprived tissue either caused by ischemic injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and stroke) or by an overcompensating immune reaction occurring in acute inflammation (e.g., pancreatitis) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS; e.g., after transplantation or surgery). Selective CRP apheresis can remove circulating CRP safely and efficiently. We explain the pathophysiological reasoning behind therapeutic CRP apheresis and summarize the broad span of indications in which its application could be beneficial with a focus on ischemic stroke as well as the results of this therapeutic approach after myocardial infarction.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Juri Radmilovic
Definition: Among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, 15% have concomitant cancer, especially in the first 6 months after their diagnosis, as well as in advanced metastatic stages. Lung, gastric, and pancreatic cancers are the most frequent malignancies associated with ACS.
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