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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Alan David Kaye
Definition: Anesthesia literally means without sensation. There are a number of different types of anesthesia. They allow for safe and comfortable conscious or unconscious experiences during a surgical procedure.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Jan 2021
Submitted by: De Cassai Alessandro
Definition: Vertebral lumbar surgery can be performed under both general anesthesia (GA) and spinal anesthesia. A clear benefit from spinal anesthesia (SA) remains unproven.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Hengrui Liu
Definition: The application of local anaesthetics is frequently involved in anaesthesia in the surgical treatment of various cancers. It is used in addition to or instead of general anaesthesia as a way to provide control of sensation and pain to specific regions or parts of the patients' bodies. They are thought to reduce the requirement for volatile anaesthetics and opioids used in the surgery.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Feb 2021
Definition: Neuropathic pain in humans arises as a consequence of injury or disease of somatosensory nervous system at peripheral or central level. Peripheral neuropathic pain is more common than central neuropathic pain, and is supposed to result from peripheral mechanisms, following nerve injury. The animal models of neuropathic pain show extensive functional and structural changes occurring in neuronal and non-neuronal cells in response to peripheral nerve injury. These pathological changes following damage lead to peripheral sensitization development, and subsequently to central sensitization initiation with spinal and supraspinal mechanism involved. The aim of this narrative review paper is to discuss the mechanisms engaged in peripheral neuropathic pain generation and maintenance, with special focus on the role of glial, immune, and epithelial cells in peripheral nociception. Based on the preclinical and clinical studies, interactions between neuronal and non-neuronal cells have been described, pointing out at the molecular/cellular underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain, which might be potentially targeted by topical treatments in clinical practice. The modulation of the complex neuro-immuno-cutaneous interactions in the periphery represents a strategy for the development of new topical analgesics and their utilization in clinical settings.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Feb 2021
Definition: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have emerged as key molecular identities in the sensory transduction of pain-producing stimuli.The ability of nociceptors to behave as noxious stimuli detectors relies on the presence of specialized transducing molecules at their peripheral nerve terminals capable of transforming the harmful physical (thermal and mechanical) and chemical stimuli into generator potentials. Upon nerve terminal stimulation, the output signal conveying to the central nervous system depends on the properties of transducer channels which produce generator potentials. Voltage-gated channels subsequently translate it into action potential firing. Nociceptive TRP channels are among the most studied transducer channels expressed in nociceptors and play a pivotal role in the study of pain.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Definition: Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is inevitable in kidney transplantation and negatively impacts graft and patient outcome. Reperfusion takes place in the recipient and most of the injury following ischemia and reperfusion occurs during this reperfusion phase; therefore, the intra-operative period seems an attractive window of opportunity to modulate IRI and improve short- and potentially long-term graft outcome. Commonly used volatile anesthetics such as sevoflurane and isoflurane have been shown to interfere with many of the pathophysiological processes involved in the injurious cascade of IRI.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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