Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: Ahmed Omar Kaseb
Definition: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to an unprecedented threat to the international community and raised major concerns in terms of public health safety. Although our current understanding of the complexity of COVID-19 pathogenesis remains limited, the infection is largely mediated by the interaction of viral spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The functional importance of ACE2 in different demographic and comorbid conditions may explain the significant variation in incidence and mortality of COVID-19 in vulnerable groups, and highlights its candidacy as a potential therapeutic target.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Li Chuin Chong
Definition: Viral sequence variation can expand the host repertoire, enhance the infection ability, and/or prevent the build-up of a long-term specific immunity by the host. The study of viral diversity is, thus, critical to understand sequence change and its implications for intervention strategies.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 24 May 2021
Submitted by: Ronen Borenstein
Definition: Viral pathogens often exploit host cell regulatory and signaling pathways to ensure an optimal environment for growth and survival. Several studies have suggested that 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an intracellular serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in the modulation of infection.
Unfold
Videos
Updated time: 09 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
Viruses have been regarded as a growing danger to humanity's health, and the current COVID-19 pandemic has further reinforced this thought. However, an increasing number of reports have demonstrated that viral weaponry can also be exploited for therapeutic applications. This consideration inspired the scientific committee of the event "Viruses not only the bad ones" to organize a series of webinars that will bring us on a journey through the world of viruses. This series will provide information about SARS-CoV-2 and other threatening viruses that could be responsible for new outbreaks, but will focus on the latest achievements in the application of viral technologies for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Young-Ki Choi
Definition: Even though numerous studies have been performed in the over 100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic, knowledge of the host factors influencing influenza disease severity remains elusive. Shortcomings include understanding the transmission mechanisms, natural history and precise pathogenesis of influenza disease, and host immune responses. In addition, knowledge gaps exist regarding the relationship between clinical presentation, transmission, and protection levels. Given that universal influenza vaccines are still unavailable, there remains prodigious potential for influenza to reassort and cause severe human epidemics and pandemics. Therefore, it is essential to continuously assess host-virus interactions, transmission mechanisms, and the host immune response to different influenza viruses in various animal models. The selection of appropriate animal models for specific research questions is prerequisite for accurate understanding of influenza virus properties prior to clinical trials for novel universal influenza vaccines. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of different animal models used for influenza research, including mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, swine, felines, canines, and non-human primates, will be discussed.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 04 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Rana Abdelnabi
Definition: Alphaviruses are members of the Togaviridae family that are mainly transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes. In the last decades, several alphaviruses have re-emerged causing outbreaks worldwide. Infections with the Old World alphaviruses (e.g. CHIKV, RRV) are primarily associated with polyarthritis and myalgia that can persist for months to years. On the other hand, New World alphaviruses such as VEEV cause mainly neurological disease. Despite the worldwide (re-)emergence of these viruses, there are no antivirals or vaccines available for the treatment or prevention of infections with alphaviruses. It is therefore of utmost importance to develop antiviral strategies against these viruses. We here provide an overview of the reported antiviral strategies against arthritogenic alphaviruses. In addition, we highlight the future perspectives for the development and the proper use of such antivirals.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 21 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Kiran Gadhave
Definition: Potyviruses are the largest group of plant infecting RNA viruses that cause significant losses in a wide range of crops across the globe. The majority of viruses in the genus Potyvirus are transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent, non-circulative manner and have been extensively studied vis-à-vis their structure, taxonomy, evolution, diagnosis, transmission, and molecular interactions with hosts.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Linda Chelico
Definition: The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) enzyme family in humans has 11 members with diverse functions in metabolism and immunity. The enzymes deaminate cytosine in RNA or single-stranded (ss) DNA, which forms uracil. The name is derived from the first discovered family member, APOBEC1, that edits the apolipoprotein B mRNA and other mRNAs. Uracil in RNA has a coding function, but in single-stranded (ss)DNA, it is promutagenic. Amazingly, these modification enzymes make cellular function and immunity better. For example, some family members purposefully induce these mutations in viral genomes to restrict their replication. However, events can sometimes go wrong, leading to inappropriate expression or activity, which can result in somatic mutations and cancer evolution.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 13 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Tejabhiram Yadavalli
Definition: Aptamers are oligonucleotides or peptide molecules that bind specifically to a variety of targets, often inhibiting protein–protein interactions.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jul 2020
Submitted by: François Ferron
Definition: Arenaviridae is a family of viruses harbouring important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyavirales order. Like in other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the nucleoprotein (NP) is a major actor of the viral life cycle being both (i) the necessary co-factor of the polymerase present in the L protein, and (ii) the last line of defence of the viral genome (vRNA) by physically hiding its presence in the cytoplasm. The NP is also one of the major players interfering with the immune system. Several structural studies of NP have shown that it features two domains: a globular RNA binding domain (NP-core) in its N-terminal and an exonuclease domain (ExoN) in its C-terminal. Further studies have observed that significant conformational changes are necessary for RNA encapsidation. We here present the architecture and latest structural data available on Arenaviridae NP.
Unfold
  • Page
  • of
  • 28