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Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Nuno Santos
Abstract: Cholesterol is responsible for the plasticity of plasma membranes and is involved in physiological and pathophysiological responses. Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by oxysterols, such as 25-hydroxycholesterol. The presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol at the membrane level has been shown to interfere with several viruses’ entry into their target cells. We used atomic force microscopy to assess the effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol on different properties of supported lipid bilayers with controlled lipid compositions. In particular, we showed that 25-hydroxycholesterol inhibits the lipid-condensing effects of cholesterol, rendering the bilayers less rigid. This study indicates that the inclusion of 25-hydroxycholesterol in plasma membranes or the conversion of part of their cholesterol content into 25-hydroxycholesterol leads to morphological alterations of the sphingomyelin (SM)-enriched domains and promotes lipid packing inhomogeneities. These changes culminate in membrane stiffness variations.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Si Wu
Definition: Amyloid oligomers are considered to be potential targets for the development of therapeutic strategies for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. However, due to the low-populated, transient, and heterogeneous nature of amyloid oligomers, they are hard to characterize by conventional bulk methods. The development of single molecule approaches provides a powerful toolkit for investigating these oligomeric intermediates as well as the complex process of amyloid aggregation at molecular resolution.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Duo Wai-Chi Wong
Definition: Table tennis is a popular recreational and competitive sports at all levels. Recent research on table tennis maneuvers identified the differences between playing levels and between maneuvers using parameters which included ball and racket speed, joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography, and plantar pressure distribution. Different maneuvers underlined changes on body posture and lines of movement which were accommodated particularly by the racket face angle, trunk rotation, knee and elbow joint movements, and thus different contributions of muscles. Higher-level players produced ball and strike at higher accuracy and repeatability but not necessarily lead to higher speed. In addition, higher-level players utilize superior whole-body coordination and footwork to compromise between agility and stability for a quality strike. Strengthening shoulder and wrist muscles could enhance the speed of the strike while personalized training shall be considered since motor coordination and adaptation vary among individuals.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Carl Holt
Definition: Calcium phosphate nanocluster complexes comprise a core of amorphous calcium phosphate and a sequestering shell of intrinsically disordered phosphopeptides or phosphoproteins. Solutions containing the nanocluster complexes can be thermodynamically stable or metastable due to a tendency to form a precipitate enriched in calcium phosphate. Theoretical and biophysical studies with native and recombinant phosphopeptides have shown how the radius of the core and the stability of the solution depend on the concentration of the sequestering peptide, its affinity for the calcium phosphate and its concentration in relation to the concentration of the calcium phosphate. The thickness of the sequestering shell depends on the conformation of the peptide on the core surface. A sequestering peptide is a flexible sequence including one or more short linear motifs, each of which usually contains several phosphorylated and other acidic residues. These are the main binding sites to the core so that a peptide with several binding motifs can forms loops and trains on the core surface. Calcium phosphate nanocluster complexes were first identified as substructures of casein micelles in milk and have been prepared as individual particles from peptides derived from caseins and osteopontin. Stable biofluids containing nanocluster complexes cannot cause soft tissues to become mineralized whereas stable or metastable biofluids containing nanocluster complexes can help to mineralize hard tissues.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: JYAWEI CHENG
Definition: In the absence of proper immunity, such as in the case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, may cause mucosal and even life-threatening systemic infections. P-113 (AKRHHGYKRKFH), an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derived from the human salivary protein histatin 5, shows good safety and efficacy profiles in gingivitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with oral candidiasis. However, little is known about how P-113 interacts with Candida albicans or its degradation by Candida-secreted proteases that contribute to the fungi’s resistance. Here, we use solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods to elucidate the molecular mechanism of interactions between P-113 and living Candida albicans cells. Furthermore, we found that proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus prevents the entry of P-113 into cells and that increasing the hydrophobicity of the peptide can significantly increase its antifungal activity.
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Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: JAYDIP DATTA
Abstract: In this approach we will summarise the the last three publications highlighting the key mathematical approach like Exponential F ( x ) to further exponential –Gaussian F ( x ) and finally the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbital ( LCAO ) ie a hybridised SP orbital overlapping to Remdesivir ( Drug ) –Covid19 approach. .Sigmoid Statistics or Logistics regression is a method to applied to Infection fatality rate ( IFR ) the most important epidemological parameters is also under consideration .
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Valentín Iglesias
Definition: DispHred is the first disorder predictor that includes the effect of the solution pH in its calculations. The DispHred key feature is profiling the pH-dependence disorder of a protein sequence across a pH interval, identifying pH-induced order/disorder protein transitions. DispHred is freely available for academic users at https://ppmclab.pythonanywhere.com/DispHred.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Takahashi Shunsuke
Definition: DNA replication, repair, and recombination in the cell play a significant role in the regulation of the inheritance, maintenance, and transfer of genetic information. To elucidate the biomolecular mechanism in the cell, some molecular models of DNA replication, repair, and recombination have been proposed. These biological studies have been conducted using bulk assays, such as gel electrophoresis. Because in bulk assays, several millions of biomolecules are subjected to analysis, the results of the biological analysis only reveal the average behavior of a large number of biomolecules. Therefore, revealing the elementary biological processes of a protein acting on DNA (e.g., the binding of protein to DNA, DNA synthesis, the pause of DNA synthesis, and the release of protein from DNA) is difficult. Single-molecule imaging allows the analysis of the dynamic behaviors of individual biomolecules that are hidden during bulk experiments. Thus, the methods for single-molecule imaging have provided new insights into almost all of the aspects of the elementary processes of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. However, in an aqueous solution, DNA molecules are in a randomly coiled state. Thus, the manipulation of the physical form of the single DNA molecules is important.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Jan 2021
Definition: Muscular alterations as a consequence of hypoxic situations contribute not only to a decrease in life expectancy but also to a lower quality of life and health status. Our perspective, based on the results of this systematic review, is that Electromyography (EMG) is a suitable tool for monitoring the different skeletal muscle responses and has sufficient sensitivity to detect the muscle changes produced by hypoxic stimuli. Therefore, surface EMG (sEMG) maybe provide a practical point-of-care diagnostic test for medical diagnoses as well as a tool to improve sports performance. integrated EMG (iEMG) studies the physiology and pathology of denervation, re-innervation, and various myopathies. It also analyzes deep musculature such as muscular behavior, temporal activity patterns, fatigue, and muscular activation. sEMG is suitable for providing information about global muscle behavior, temporal activity patterns, muscle fatigue, and the activation level of the superficial musculature.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Jae-Sung Kwon
Definition: Osteogenic differentiations of mesenchymal stem cells are known to be influenced by both intracellular and extracellular factors. In terms of the extracellular factors, extracellular environment which would include biomaterials that are used for tissue regenerations play important role. Surface modifications of biomaterials in both phycial and chemical ways have been investigated to induce osteogenic differentiations. In terms of chemical modifications, induction of chemcial functionalities such as amine, would provide favorable environment for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Use of devices such as non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (also known as bio-plasma) have been investigated in relation to the osteogenic differentiations.
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