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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Aug 2021
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Definition: What is called an ionic liquid (IL) has a very broad definition, comprising multiple substances possessing a wide diversity of structures and properties. An IL consists of both organic and inorganic ions, and may contain more than one cation or anion. Normally, a substance is considered to be an IL if completely composed of ions, with a melting point below 100 °C. Ionic liquids containing lanthanides or lanthanide compounds in ionic liquids are very important in the field of soft luminescent materials.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jan 2022
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Definition: The extracellular class of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is an essential tool for clinical diagnosis and disease management. The differences observed in tissue gadolinium retention and deposition associated with GBCAs administration is the direct consequence of the differing thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness of GBCAs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
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Definition: Herein we provides an overview of the various research approaches we have explored in recent years to improve metal-based agents for cancer or infection treatments. Although cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin remain the cornerstones in tumor chemotherapy, the discovery and approval of novel inorganic anticancer drugs is a very slow process. Analogously, although a few promising inorganic drugs have found clinical application against parasitic or bacterial infections, their use remains relatively limited. Moreover, the discovery process is often affected by small therapeutic enhancements that are not attractive for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the availability of increasing mechanistic information for the modes of action of established inorganic drugs is fueling the exploration of various approaches for developing effective inorganic chemotherapy agents. Through a series of examples, some from our own research experience, we focus our attention on a number of promising strategies, including (1) drug repurposing, (2) the simple modification of the chemical structures of approved metal-based drugs, (3) testing novel drug combinations, and (4) newly synthesized complexes coupling different anticancer drugs. Accordingly, we aim to suggest and summarize a series of reliable approaches that are exploitable for the development of improved and innovative treatments.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jan 2021
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Definition: Metal-organic frameworks represent a porous class of materials that are build up from metal ions or oligonuclear metallic complexes and organic ligands. They can be considered as sub-class of coordination polymers and can be extended into one-dimension, two-dimensions, and three-dimensions. Depending on the size of the pores, MOFs are divided into nanoporous, mesoporous, and macroporous items. The latter two are usually amorphous. MOFs display high porosity, a large specific surface area, and high thermal stability due to the presence of coordination bonds. The pores can incorporate neutral molecules, such as solvent molecules, anions, and cations, depending on the overall charge of the MOF, gas molecules, and biomolecules. The structural diversity of the framework and the multifunctionality of the pores render this class of materials as candidates for a plethora of environmental and biomedical applications and also as catalysts, sensors, piezo/ferroelectric, thermoelectric, and magnetic materials.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
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Definition: Zeolites are ionic conductors and the cation electrical mobility in zeolites depends on their hydration state; consequently, the water adsorption/desorption process can be simply investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of current intensity in samples exposed to an environment with constant humidity or dry air, respectively. According to this kinetic analysis, a mechanism has been formulated for the water adsorption process able to justify the Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetics observed for adsorption and the first-order kinetics observed for desorption. In this mechanism water molecules are first attract by the electric field of the cations and then they move at cation-framework interface to maximize the hydrogen bond interactions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
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Definition: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein essential to neurons survival, which interacts with its receptor as a non-covalent dimer. Copper affects biological activity of NGF and conversely NGF may regulates copper trafficking in synaptic cleft.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jul 2021
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Definition: The ferromanganese (FeMn) alloy is produced through the smelting-reduction of manganese ores in submerged arc furnaces. This process generates large amounts of furnace dust that is environmentally problematic for storage. Due to its fineness and high volatile content, this furnace dust cannot be recirculated through the process, either. Conventional MnO2 production requires the pre-reduction of low-grade ores at around 900 °C to convert the manganese oxides present in the ore into their respective acid-soluble forms; however, the furnace dust is a partly reduced by-product. A hydrometallurgical route is proposed to valorize the waste dust for the production of battery-grade MnO2. By using dextrin, a cheap organic reductant, the direct and complete dissolution of the manganese in the furnace dust is possible without any need for high-temperature pre-reduction. The leachate is then purified through pH adjustment followed by direct electrowinning for electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. An overall manganese recovery rate of >90% is achieved.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
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Definition: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a significant complementary or alternative approach for cancer treatment. Re(I) tricarbonyl complexes is a new generation of metal-based photosensitisers for PDT that are of great interest in multidisciplinary research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
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Definition: It is confirmed that copper is a self-sanitising metal, acting on human pathogens in a way that does not let them survive exposure to copper or copper alloy surfaces for any reasonable length of time. Regarding the efficacy of copper surfaces, testing in an independent microbiology laboratory has led to 300 various copper surfaces being registered with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 2008. The registration includes the following statement: “When cleaned regularly, the antimicrobial copper alloy surface kills greater than 99.9% of bacteria within two hours and continues to kill more than 99% of bacteria even after repeated contamination”. This claim acknowledges that copper and its alloys brass and bronze can kill potentially deadly bacteria, and sometime later, it was further understood that copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and laser textured copper also show enhanced antimicrobial activity.
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Others
Updated time: 11 Jan 2022
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Abstract: Na9V14O35 (η-NaxV2O5) has been synthesized by a solid-state route in an evacuated sealed silica tube and tested as electroactive material for Na half-cells. Being charged to 4.6 V vs. Na+/Na, almost 3 Na can be extracted per Na9V14O35 formula unit, resulting in a charge capacity of about 60 mAh g−1. Upon discharge below 1 V, Na9V14O35 uptakes Na up to the Na:V = 1:1 atomic ratio that is accompanied by a drastic increase of the separation between the layers of the VO4 tetrahedra and VO5 tetragonal pyramids, and a volume increase of about 31%. The induced structure instability triggers a transformation of the ordered layered Na9V14O35 structure into a rock-salt type disordered structure. Ultimately, the amorphous products of a conversion reaction are formed at 0.1 V, delivering the discharge capacity up to 490 mAh g−1, which, however, quickly fades with the number of charge-discharge cycles.
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