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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Alexey Chubarov
Definition: Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma. It is found at a concentration of roughly 0.7 mM in the vasculature. HSA is a monomeric multidomain biomolecule, representing the main determinant of plasma oncotic pressure and displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity. HSA represents the main carrier for fatty acids, affects the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, can be a platform for drug discovery, suitable transport for therapy and diagnostics. Here we develop a class of macromolecular constructs from nitroxides conjugated to a human carrier protein as potential Organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a powerful non-invasive tool for clinics. The MRI specificity can be improved by enhancing by the addition of a contrast agent. The most efficient of the currently-used contrast agents are paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. However, the low stability of some chelates and therefore release toxic metal ions from the chelates provide harmful oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, changes in gene expression, DNA damage, mutagenicity, etc. Therefore, there is sufficient interest in the production of “metal-free” MRI contrast agents.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Mar 2021
Submitted by: WAYIZA MASAMBA
Definition: α-Amino acids find widespread applications in various areas of life and physical sciences. Their syntheses are carried out by a multitude of protocols, of which Petasis and Strecker reactions have emerged as the most straightforward and most widely used.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Peter Cragg
Definition: Calixarenes have been shown to have antimicrobial effects since the 1950s. These properties are exemplified through their applications as prodrugs, drug delivery agents and biofilm inhibitors. A particularly important development in recent years has been their ability to engage in multivalent interactions with proteins, thus inhibiting cellular aggregation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Aparna Das
Definition: Ascorbic acid is the most well-known vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis. Ascorbic acid can be used as a substrate or mediator in organic synthesis. In this review, we report ascorbic acid-catalyzed reactions in organic synthesis. Several examples are included in this review to demonstrate that ascorbic acid is a versatile catalyst for the synthesis of diverse organic compounds. Reactions catalyzed by ascorbic acid are performed in organic or aqueous media. The readily available and easy handling features of ascorbic acid make these procedures highly fascinating.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Aparna Das
Definition: Ascorbic acid is a vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Xavier Salom-Roig
Definition: Aurilides are a class of depsipeptides occurring mainly in marine cyanobacteria. Members of the aurilide family have shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. These compounds bear a pentapeptide, a polyketide, and an α-hydroxy ester subunit in their structure.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Biography
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Bartolo Gabriele
Abstract: Prof. Bartolo Gabriele (Laboratory of Industrial and Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy), updated January 2020, is provided
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Bimal Banik
Definition: Discovery and synthesis of penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics have received sustained attention. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is extensively documented in several thousand of publications. In modern times, microwave-induced reactions are also used extensively for the synthesis and stereochemical studies of diverse β-lactams. In this paper, the author describes a few crucial reactions that are performed toward the synthesis of β-lactams and products obtained from them under classical conditions as well as by domestic or automated microwave oven.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Jorge David
Definition: Betulinic acid (BA, 3β-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid present predominantly in Betula ssp. (Betulaceae) and is also widely spread in many species belonging to different plant families. BA presents a wide spectrum of remarkable pharmacological properties, such as cytotoxic, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities, including antiprotozoal effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Dec 2020
Submitted by: WAYIZA MASAMBA
Definition: Enzyme catalysis is a very active research area in organic chemistry, because biocatalysts are compatible with and can be adjusted to many reaction conditions, as well as substrates. Their integration in multicomponent reactions (MCRs) allows for simple protocols to be implemented in the diversity-oriented synthesis of complex molecules in chemo-, regio-, stereoselective or even specific modes without the need for the protection/deprotection of functional groups.
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