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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Ilya Shenderovich
Definition: This review discusses molecular adducts, whose composition allows a symmetric structure. Such adducts are popular model systems, as they are useful for analyzing the effect of structure on the property selected for study since they allow one to reduce the number of parameters. The main objectives of this discussion are to evaluate the influence of the surroundings on the symmetry of these adducts, steric hindrances within the adducts, competition between different noncovalent interactions responsible for stabilizing the adducts, and experimental methods that can be used to study the symmetry at different time scales. This review considers the following central binding units: hydrogen (proton), halogen (anion), metal (cation), water (hydrogen peroxide).
Entry Collection : Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Alexey Chubarov
Definition: Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma. It is found at a concentration of roughly 0.7 mM in the vasculature. HSA is a monomeric multidomain biomolecule, representing the main determinant of plasma oncotic pressure and displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity. HSA represents the main carrier for fatty acids, affects the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, can be a platform for drug discovery, suitable transport for therapy and diagnostics. Here we develop a class of macromolecular constructs from nitroxides conjugated to a human carrier protein as potential Organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a powerful non-invasive tool for clinics. The MRI specificity can be improved by enhancing by the addition of a contrast agent. The most efficient of the currently-used contrast agents are paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. However, the low stability of some chelates and therefore release toxic metal ions from the chelates provide harmful oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, changes in gene expression, DNA damage, mutagenicity, etc. Therefore, there is sufficient interest in the production of “metal-free” MRI contrast agents.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: yue luo
Definition: Flavor is one of the most important factors in attracting consumers and maximizing food quality, and the Maillard reaction (MR) is highly-involved in flavor formation. However, Maillard reaction products have a big drawback in their relatively low stability in thermal treatment and storage. Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs), MR intermediates, can alternatively act as potential flavor additives for their better stability and fresh flavor formation ability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Mar 2021
Submitted by: WAYIZA MASAMBA
Definition: α-Amino acids find widespread applications in various areas of life and physical sciences. Their syntheses are carried out by a multitude of protocols, of which Petasis and Strecker reactions have emerged as the most straightforward and most widely used.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Peter Cragg
Definition: Calixarenes have been shown to have antimicrobial effects since the 1950s. These properties are exemplified through their applications as prodrugs, drug delivery agents and biofilm inhibitors. A particularly important development in recent years has been their ability to engage in multivalent interactions with proteins, thus inhibiting cellular aggregation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Aparna Das
Definition: Ascorbic acid is the most well-known vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis. Ascorbic acid can be used as a substrate or mediator in organic synthesis. In this review, we report ascorbic acid-catalyzed reactions in organic synthesis. Several examples are included in this review to demonstrate that ascorbic acid is a versatile catalyst for the synthesis of diverse organic compounds. Reactions catalyzed by ascorbic acid are performed in organic or aqueous media. The readily available and easy handling features of ascorbic acid make these procedures highly fascinating.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Aparna Das
Definition: Ascorbic acid is a vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Changgong Xu
Definition: These ketimines are less electrophilic and thus, arguably, more challenging substrates. 3-Aryl-3-hydroxyisoindolin-1-ones are often employed as stable precursors for the corresponding endocyclic N-carbonyl diaryl ketimines. This class of ketimines is useful synthons to access chiral isoindolin-1-ones that are an important motif found in numerous biologically relevant molecules and natural products.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Xavier Salom-Roig
Definition: Aurilides are a class of depsipeptides occurring mainly in marine cyanobacteria. Members of the aurilide family have shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. These compounds bear a pentapeptide, a polyketide, and an α-hydroxy ester subunit in their structure.
Entry Collection : Organic Synthesis
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Biography
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Bartolo Gabriele
Abstract: Prof. Bartolo Gabriele (Laboratory of Industrial and Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy), updated January 2020, is provided
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