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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: Microalgae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic microscopic single-cell organisms, producinga great variety of compounds, such as photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls), sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, fiber, polysaccharides, enzymes, peptides, and toxins. In recent years, they have attracted great interest as a major source of bioactive medicinal products and food ingredients with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. In most pre-clinical studies performed with Euglena gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, or Nitzschia laevis microalgae, positive anti-obesity effects have been addressed in animals submitted to an obesogenic feeding pattern. However, more research is warranted to determine which bioactive compound(s) are responsible for their anti-obesity effects, as well as to establish the mechanisms underlying those effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Wenjuan CONG
Definition: There is an urgent need for further research and guidance in this field, from producing evidence-based guidelines, reassessing biomarkers for antimicrobial stewardship in COVID-19 patients, understanding drivers, benefits, and disbenefits of antibiotic use, and assessing the wider impact of the pandemic on antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR. In this scoping review, we aim to: add to the research evidence on prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients; identify the most commonly used antibiotics and clinical scenarios associated with AMU; and to explore any impact of AMU on patient treatment outcomes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Deog-Hwan Oh
Definition: As the situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still de-teriorating, there has been a huge increase in the demand and use of disinfectants. Electrolyzed water (EW), as a novel broad-spectrum disinfectant and cleaner, has been widely used for several years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Rammohan V. Rao
Definition: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Apr 2021
Definition: Eating disorders (EDs) are mental illnesses that cause serious disturbances to people’s everyday diet. Since EDs are on the rise throughout the world, healthcare policies and practitioners need to research different treatment options and their affectivity, value for patients, and cost effectiveness, in order to make any substantial change to the growth of this disease.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Madan Mohan Gupta
Definition: The emergence and global spread of COVID-19 has disrupted the traditional mechanisms of education throughout the world. Institutions of learning were caught unprepared and this jeopardised the face-to-face method of curriculum delivery and assessment. Teaching institutions have shifted to an asynchronous mode whilst attempting to preserve the principles of integrity, equity, inclusiveness, fairness, ethics, and safety. A framework of assessment that enables educators to utilise appropriate methods in measuring a student’s progress is crucial for the success of teaching and learning, especially in health education that demands high standards and comprises consistent scientific content.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Sep 2020
Definition: Research shows the beneficial effects of applying Augmented Reality technology to improve different abilities in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: cognitive and emotional processes, social communication, theory of mind, attention, and functional and motor outcomes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Hari Sharma
Definition: Ayurveda is a comprehensive, natural health care system that originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. Epigenetics refers to the external modification of DNA that turns genes on and off, affecting gene expression. This occurs without changes in the basic structure of the DNA. This gene expression can have transgenerational effects. The major factors that cause epigenetic changes are lifestyle and behavior, diet and digestion, stress, and environmental factors. Ayurveda addresses these factors, thereby affecting the Deha (body) Prakriti (psychophysiological constitution), which corresponds to the phenotype, and indirectly the Janma (birth) Prakriti, which corresponds to the genotype. Thus, it is proposed that epigenetics is an important mechanism of Ayurveda.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Sandro Esteves
Definition: Azoospermia (a-, without + –zoo– » Greek zôion, animal + –spermia– » Greek sperma, sperm/seed) is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Akinari Sawada
Definition: Belching is defined as “an audible escape of air from the esophagus or the stomach into the pharynx”.
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