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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
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Definition: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL (high density lipoprotein)-cholesterol, and hypertension, is known to be a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is considered one of the most important preventable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, whose prevalence is increasing.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 May 2021
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Definition: Aging of bone marrow is a complex process that is involved in the development of many diseases, including hematologic cancers. The results obtained in this field of research, year after year, underline the important role of cross-talk between hematopoietic stem cells and their close environment. In bone marrow, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major player in cell-to-cell communication, presenting a wide range of functionalities, sometimes opposite, depending on the environmental conditions. Although these cells are actively studied for their therapeutic properties, their role in tumor progression remains unclear. One of the reasons for this is that the aging of MSCs has a direct impact on their behavior and on hematopoiesis. In addition, tumor progression is accompanied by dynamic remodeling of the bone marrow niche that may interfere with MSC functions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: Microalgae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic microscopic single-cell organisms, producinga great variety of compounds, such as photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls), sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, fiber, polysaccharides, enzymes, peptides, and toxins. In recent years, they have attracted great interest as a major source of bioactive medicinal products and food ingredients with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. In most pre-clinical studies performed with Euglena gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, or Nitzschia laevis microalgae, positive anti-obesity effects have been addressed in animals submitted to an obesogenic feeding pattern. However, more research is warranted to determine which bioactive compound(s) are responsible for their anti-obesity effects, as well as to establish the mechanisms underlying those effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jan 2021
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Definition: As the situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still de-teriorating, there has been a huge increase in the demand and use of disinfectants. Electrolyzed water (EW), as a novel broad-spectrum disinfectant and cleaner, has been widely used for several years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Apr 2021
Definition: Eating disorders (EDs) are mental illnesses that cause serious disturbances to people’s everyday diet. Since EDs are on the rise throughout the world, healthcare policies and practitioners need to research different treatment options and their affectivity, value for patients, and cost effectiveness, in order to make any substantial change to the growth of this disease.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Sep 2020
Definition: Research shows the beneficial effects of applying Augmented Reality technology to improve different abilities in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: cognitive and emotional processes, social communication, theory of mind, attention, and functional and motor outcomes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Dec 2020
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Definition: Ayurveda is a comprehensive, natural health care system that originated in the ancient Vedic times of India. Epigenetics refers to the external modification of DNA that turns genes on and off, affecting gene expression. This occurs without changes in the basic structure of the DNA. This gene expression can have transgenerational effects. The major factors that cause epigenetic changes are lifestyle and behavior, diet and digestion, stress, and environmental factors. Ayurveda addresses these factors, thereby affecting the Deha (body) Prakriti (psychophysiological constitution), which corresponds to the phenotype, and indirectly the Janma (birth) Prakriti, which corresponds to the genotype. Thus, it is proposed that epigenetics is an important mechanism of Ayurveda.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Nov 2020
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Definition: Belching is defined as “an audible escape of air from the esophagus or the stomach into the pharynx”.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
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Definition: The present study aimed to quantify the relationship between body dissatisfaction and morbid exercise behaviour (MEB).
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
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Definition: Studies describing invasive fungal infections (IFIs) after chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T-cell) therapy are limited. Although post-CAR-T-cell IFIs appear to be uncommon, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Specific risk factors for IFIs in CAR-T-cell recipients have not been fully characterized and are often extrapolated from variables contributing to IFIs in patients with other hematologic malignancies or those undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant. Optimal prophylaxis strategies, including the use of yeast versus mold-active azoles, also remain ill-defined. Further research should investigate key risk factors for IFIs and establish an evidence-based approach to antifungal prophylaxis in these patients in order to improve clinical outcomes.
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