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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Sebastian Majewski
Definition: Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and a global public health concern. In 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), ambient air pollution in cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.2 million premature deaths. It is estimated that around 91% of the world’s population lives in places where air pollution exceeds the limits recommended by the WHO. Sources of air pollution are multiple and context-specific. Air pollution exposures are established risk factors for development and adverse health outcomes in many respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer. However, possible associations between air pollution and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have not been adequately studied and air pollution seems to be an underrecognized risk factor for IPF.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Rammohan V. Rao
Definition: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mauricio Maldonado
Definition: The Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are a group of components that receive their name because in their chemical structure have a benzene ring joined to other seven-members heterocyclic ring called Diazepine.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Jenn Fang Su
Definition: Biochar is a carbon-rich material prepared from the pyrolysis of biomass under various conditions. Recently, biochar drew great attention due to its promising potential in climate change mitigation, soil amendment, and environmental control. Obviously, biochar can be a beneficial soil amendment in several ways including preventing nutrients loss due to leaching, increasing N and P mineralization, and enabling the microbial mediation of N2O and CO2 emissions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 May 2021
Submitted by: Brandon Chua
Definition: In Southeast Asia, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Low coverage for cervical cancer screening (CCS) becomes a roadblock to disease detection and treatment. Herein, we identified the barriers to and facilitators of cervical cancer screening among women living in SEA.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Definition: Evaluate the level of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of Community Occupational Therapy interventions is necessary.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Definition: Copper chrome arsenate (CCA) water-borne solution used to make timber is highly resistant to pests and fungi, in particular, wood products designed for outdoor use. Nowadays, CCA is a restricted chemical product in most countries, since potential environmental and health risks were reported due to dermal contact with CCA residues from treated structures and the surrounding soils. However, large quantities of CCA-treated timber are still in use in framings, outdoor playground equipment, landscaping, building poles, jetty piles, and fencing structures around the world, thus CCA remains a source of pollutants to the environment and of increasing toxic metal/metalloid exposure (mainly in children). International efforts have been dedicated to the treatment of materials impregnated with CCA, however not only does some reuse of CCA-treated timber still occur, but also existing structures are leaking the toxic compounds into the environment, with impacts on the environment and animal and human health.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Amira Azmi
Definition: The synthesis and secretion of cortisol are controlled by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Cortisol exhibits a proper 24-h circadian rhythm that affects the brain, the autonomic nervous system, the heart, and the vasculature that prepares the cardiovascular system for optimal function during these anticipated behavioral cycles.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Vicente Paulo Alves
Definition: A prevalência da pandemia COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) na população idosa, principalmente institucionalizada, ocorre por ser este o cenário em que o isolamento social é difícil em uma situação como a de uma pandemia. A vulnerabilidade dessa população está ligada aos aspectos fisiológicos do envelhecimento, que impactam na eficácia do sistema imunológico, desencadeando morbimortalidade por doenças infecciosas.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Jose Garcia Rodriguez
Definition: Dementia is a syndrome that is characterised by the decline of different cognitive abilities. A high rate of deaths and high cost for detection, treatments, and patients care count amongst its consequences. Although there is no cure for dementia, a timely diagnosis helps in obtaining necessary support, appropriate medication, and maintenance, as far as possible, of engagement in intellectual, social, and physical activities. The early detection of Alzheimer Disease (AD) is considered to be of high importance for improving the quality of life of patients and their families. In particular, Virtual Reality (VR) is an expanding tool that can be used in order to assess cognitive abilities while navigating through a Virtual Environment (VE).
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