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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 13 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Hing-wah Chau
Definition: Age-friendly built environments have been promoted by the World Health Organisation (WHO, Geneva, Switzerland) under the Global Age-friendly Cities (AFC) movement in which three domains are related to the built environment. These are: housing, transportation, outdoor spaces and public buildings. The aim is to foster active ageing by optimising opportunities for older adults to maximise their independent living ability and participate in their communities to enhance their quality of life and wellbeing. An age-friendly built environment is inclusive, accessible, respects individual needs and addresses the wide range of capacities across the course of life. Age-friendly housing promotes ageing in familiar surroundings and maintains social connections at the neighbourhood and community levels. Both age-friendly housing and buildings provide barrier-free provisions to minimise the needs for subsequent adaptations. Age-friendly public and outdoor spaces encourage older adults to spend time outside and engage with others against isolation and loneliness. Age-friendly public transport enables older adults to get around and enhances their mobility. For achieving an age-friendly living environment, a holistic approach is required to enable independent living, inclusion and active participation of older adults in society. The eight domains of the AFC movement are not mutually exclusive but overlap and support with one another.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Sebastian Majewski
Definition: Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and a global public health concern. In 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), ambient air pollution in cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.2 million premature deaths. It is estimated that around 91% of the world’s population lives in places where air pollution exceeds the limits recommended by the WHO. Sources of air pollution are multiple and context-specific. Air pollution exposures are established risk factors for development and adverse health outcomes in many respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer. However, possible associations between air pollution and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have not been adequately studied and air pollution seems to be an underrecognized risk factor for IPF.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Rammohan V. Rao
Definition: Artemisia is one of the most widely distributed genera of the family Astraceae with more than 500 diverse species growing mainly in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia and North America. The plant is used in Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine for its antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Research based studies point to Artemisia’s role in addressing an entire gamut of physiological imbalances through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes are some of the major phytochemicals of the genus. Notable among the phytochemicals is artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) that represent a new class of recommended drugs due to the emergence of quinoline drug-resistant pathogens.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Carla Viegas
Definition: Aspergillus species are filamentous fungi commonly observed in different environmental compartments such as soil, water and air, with an emphasis on decaying vegetation, seeds and grains, where they prosper as saprophytes. Aspergillus species are also found in different indoor environments, and some species are considered opportunistic pathogens for humans. Aspergillus conidia can be abundant in outdoor and indoor environments and are easily dispersed in the air depending on the developed activities. Since the conidia are very small, they are easily inhaled and may colonize the upper and lower respiratory tract of exposed individuals. Aspergillus section Fumigati is one of the Aspergillus sections more frequently related to respiratory symptoms due to the small size of the conidia, thermotolerance, its nutritional versatility, and several other virulence factors . Additionally, the development of resistance to antifungal drugs, mainly in this Aspergillus section, is a phenomenon with growing prevalence in Europe, being associated with therapeutic failure and high mortality rates.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Mauricio Maldonado
Definition: The Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are a group of components that receive their name because in their chemical structure have a benzene ring joined to other seven-members heterocyclic ring called Diazepine.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Jenn Fang Su
Definition: Biochar is a carbon-rich material prepared from the pyrolysis of biomass under various conditions. Recently, biochar drew great attention due to its promising potential in climate change mitigation, soil amendment, and environmental control. Obviously, biochar can be a beneficial soil amendment in several ways including preventing nutrients loss due to leaching, increasing N and P mineralization, and enabling the microbial mediation of N2O and CO2 emissions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Mmemek-Abasi Etim
Definition: Cement is the most common and extensively used adhesive in the construction industry. It is employed on highways, houses, embankments, bridges, commercial establishments, and flyovers. In recent years, the Nigerian cement industry has grown from import dependency to an export-thriving epicentre within Africa. The country possesses the largest cement industry within West Africa, with at least 12 registered companies amounting to a merged cement capacity of 58.9 Mt/yr. Dangote Cement is the largest cement producer in Nigeria and West Africa, manufacturing a combined share of more than 28.5 Mt/yr of cement capacity. Also, LafargeHolcim (through its subsidiary AshakaCem & Lafarge WAPCO) and BUA Group boost 18.9 Mt/yr and 11.5 Mt/yr of integrated cement capacity, respectively.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 May 2021
Submitted by: Brandon Chua
Definition: In Southeast Asia, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Low coverage for cervical cancer screening (CCS) becomes a roadblock to disease detection and treatment. Herein, we identified the barriers to and facilitators of cervical cancer screening among women living in SEA.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Definition: Evaluate the level of scientific evidence for the effectiveness of Community Occupational Therapy interventions is necessary.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Definition: Copper chrome arsenate (CCA) water-borne solution used to make timber is highly resistant to pests and fungi, in particular, wood products designed for outdoor use. Nowadays, CCA is a restricted chemical product in most countries, since potential environmental and health risks were reported due to dermal contact with CCA residues from treated structures and the surrounding soils. However, large quantities of CCA-treated timber are still in use in framings, outdoor playground equipment, landscaping, building poles, jetty piles, and fencing structures around the world, thus CCA remains a source of pollutants to the environment and of increasing toxic metal/metalloid exposure (mainly in children). International efforts have been dedicated to the treatment of materials impregnated with CCA, however not only does some reuse of CCA-treated timber still occur, but also existing structures are leaking the toxic compounds into the environment, with impacts on the environment and animal and human health.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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