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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: Given the reproducibility crisis (or replication crisis), more psychologists and social-cultural scientists are getting involved with Bayesian inference. Therefore, the current article provides a brief overview of programs (or software) and steps to conduct Bayesian data analysis in social sciences.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Minh-Hoang Nguyen
Definition: Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF, also known as Bayesian Mindsponge analytical approach) is an analytical approach that employs the mindsponge information-processing mechanism and Bayesian analysis (e.g. bayesvl package) as each other’s complement to conduct cognitive and psychological research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Robert Friedman
Definition: Cognition is the acquisition of knowledge by the mechanical process of information flow in a system. In animal cognition, input is received by the various sensory modalities and the output may be a motor or other action. The sensory information is internally transformed to a set of representations which is the basis for cognitive processing. This is in contrast to the traditional definition that is based on mental processes and a metaphysical description.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Rita Moura
Definition: COVID-19 has brought an unexpected need for change within organizations, particularly regarding human resource management. The nature of this global crisis has meant that these processes remain under-systematized. The aim of this study, which uses an exploratory design and mixed-methods analysis, is to contribute to describing the changes in human resource management practices and processes that resulted from this pandemic and to present the outlook of human resource managers for the future. One hundred and thirty-six Portuguese companies participated in the study, with the answers provided by their human resource managers. Results show that the main changes have occurred in the processes of work and safety, training, work organization, recruitment and selection, induction and onboarding, and communication. The profiles that emerged showed an association between the level of change and size of the organization. There was an increase in the use of teleworking and layoffs, and a positive assessment of the organizations’ level of preparation and adaptation to this crisis. Human resource managers reported that the most evident changes in the future will be associated with the use of technology, teleworking, and work organization. These findings are of the upmost importance, as human resource managers are essential pillars in the adjustment of the organizations to this pandemic situation.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Desiree Colombo
Definition: When facing a negative event, people implement different strategies to regulate ongoing emotions. Although the previous literature has suggested that the emotional intensity of a negative episode is associated with the characteristics of the subsequent autobiographical memory, it is still unknown whether emotion regulation (ER) moderates this relationship. In the present study, we provided undergraduate students with a smartphone-based diary to report a negative episode immediately after its occurrence and rate the momentary use of two ER strategies: cognitive reappraisal and rumination. To explore autobiographical memory, two “surprise” recall tasks were performed one week and one month after the event. According to the results, cognitive reappraisal was linked with better memory performances, and a tendency to retrospectively underestimate the negativity of highly intense events was observed only in participants adopting high rates of this strategy. Conversely, intense rumination was found to be associated with less detailed memories of emotionally intense events, as well as with higher emotional involvement with negative episodes over time, regardless of their intensity. The results support the maladaptive role of rumination and the adaptive influence of cognitive reappraisal on autobiographical memory.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Kristina Meyer
Definition: The term Face Cognition (FC) describes a set of specific abilities related to the processing of faces, including face perception and face memory.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Mirko Duradoni
Definition: Technological advancement is constantly evolving, and it is also developing in the mental health field. Various applications, often based on virtual reality, have been implemented to carry out psychological assessments and interventions, using innovative human–machine interaction systems. In this context, the LEAP Motion sensing technology has raised interest, since it allows for more natural interactions with digital contents, via an optical tracking of hand and finger movements.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Claire Stevenson
Definition: Despite decades of extensive research on creativity, the field still combats psychometric problems when measuring individual differences in creative ability and people’s potential to achieve real-world outcomes that are both original and useful. We think these seemingly technical issues have a conceptual origin. We therefore propose a minimal theory of creative ability (MTCA) to create a consistent conceptual theory to guide investigations of individual differences in creative ability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Mariaelena Tagliabue
Definition: Real-time coaching programs are designed to give feedback on driving behavior to usage-based motor insurance users; they are often general purpose programs that aim to promote smooth driving.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Radosław Stupak
Definition: The alternative systemic approach to mental health issues and of a more humane mental health care system suggests focusing on understanding mental distress as stemming from problems in living, using medications as agents facilitating psychotherapy, or as a last resort and short-term help, according to the principles of harm reduction. It argues that understanding drugs as psychoactive substances and studying the subjective effects they produce could lead to better utilization of medications and improvements in terms of conceptualizing and assessing treatment effects. Qualitative research could be particularly useful in that regard. It also advocates a radical departure from current diagnostic systems and proposes a synthesis of already existing alternatives to be used for both research and clinical purposes.
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