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Topic review
Updated time: 25 May 2021
Submitted by: Jie Wang
Definition: The externality cost of carbon emission can be internalized through emission trading schemes (ETSs), which contribute to carbon emission reduction. Consequently, ETSs have been widely adopted in the implementation of emission reduction targets.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Dongping Song
Definition: Container shipping supply chain (CSSC) consists of several key stakeholders such as the shipper, freight forwarder, shipping line, port/terminal operator, inland carrier, and intermodal terminal/depot operator, who are working together to transport containerized cargo by different transport vehicles (e.g., vessels, trains, and trucks) and handle the containers by various types of handling equipment and facilities (e.g., terminals, cranes, trailers, wagons, lifters, and depots) from origin to destination along the entire end-to-end supply chain.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Taqwa Hariguna
Definition: Electronic government serves to connect activities between society and the government. People are familiar with the term electronic government and have used other government applications to support their activities, such as searching for regional information, tourism potential, e-filing, and electronic citizen cards. The evolution of electronic government is occurring very quickly to facilitate the complex problems faced today and prepare for changes in the future. The role of government cannot be separated from service activities to the general citizen. One of the digital channels is electronic government, that can be used as a two-way service media that can adapt to changes both technically, as well as in design and strategy. Electronic government quality is an important domain that can influence citizens’ responses to the quality of facilities provided by the government. Connection quality is a user’s concept of what is felt that affects the quality of credence and contentment to the perceived experience.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Yanghong Wu
Definition: Inclusive Green Growth is a sustainable development mode that pursues the coordination of economic growth, ecological environment and social equity. It coordinates the contradictions and conflicts between man and nature and between man and man by changing and optimizing the mode of production. It is an important way and specific form to realize the coordinated development of the three systems of economy, society and nature. Inclusive Green Growth pursues fairness and efficiency, the internal consistency between development and environment, and is committed to achieving high-quality synchronous development of economy, society and ecology. Compared with Green Growth and Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Green Growth has richer theoretical connotation and practical value: the change of wealth system and development concept is its logical starting point; The coordinated reform of the socio-economic structure system based on the mode of production is the guarantee of its system; The overall coordination of growth and development is its prominent feature; Economic growth, inclusiveness and sharing, effective utilization and protection of ecological resources are its internal requirements; The equal participation and sharing of the whole people in the development process and development achievements is its value orientation. The comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of the three systems of economy, society and nature is its goal and requirement.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Jul 2021
Submitted by: OURANIA Tzoraki
Definition: The ongoing ‘refugee crisis’ of the past years has led to the migration of refugee researchers (RRs) to European countries. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, RRs often had to work from home and/or to continue their social, cultural and economic integration process under new conditions. An online survey carried out to explore the impact of the pandemic on the refugee researchers showed that RRs found it difficult to adapt their everyday working life to the ‘home’ setting. The majority have had neither a suitable work environment at home nor the appropriate technology. Although they stated that they are rather pleased with the measures taken by the public authorities, they expressed concern about their vulnerability due to their precarious contracts and the bureaucratic asylum procedures, as the pandemic has had a negative impact on these major issues. The majority of RRs working in academia seem not to have been affected at all as far as their income is concerned, while the majority of those employed in other sectors became unemployed during the pandemic (58%). Recommendations are provided to the public authorities and policy makers to assist RRs to mitigate the consequences of the pandemic on their life.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: QI Jianwu
Definition: The development of rural areas is a significant component in social and economic activities. It is very important for optimizing the allocation of rural production and living factors, promoting the integration of urban and rural areas and sustainable development to identify the characteristics and main types of regional rural development.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Dagim Dawit GONSAMO
Definition: Child labour remains a prevalent global concern, and progress toward eradicating harmful children’s work appears to have stalled in the African continent and henceforth, integrated social policy intervention is still required to address the problem. Among several forms of social policy interventions, stomach infrastructure (i.e., in-kind and/or cash transfers) have been a key policy approach to support vulnerable families to lighten households’ resources burden, which forces them to consider child labour as a coping strategy. There is growing evidence on the impacts of these programs in child labour. However, this evidence is often mixed regarding children’s work outcomes, and the existing studies hardly describe such heterogeneous outcomes from the child-sensitive approach. To this end, a systematic literature search was conducted for studies in African countries. From 743 references retrieved in this study, 27 studies were included for the review, and a narrative approach has been employed to analyse extracted evidence. Results from the current study also demonstrate a mixed effect of in-kind and cash transfers for poor households on child labour decisions. Hence, the finding from the current review also demonstrates reduced participation ofchildren in paid and unpaid work outside the household due to in-kind and cash transfers to poor households, but children’s time spent in economic and non-economic household labour and farm and non-farm labour, which are detrimental to child health and schooling, has been reported increasingdue to the program interventions. The question remains how these programs can effectively consider child-specific and household-related key characteristics. To this end, a child-sensitive social protection perspective has been applied in this study to explain these mixed outcomes to inform policy design.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Prince Ameyaw
Definition: Land acquisition in Ghana is fraught with challenges of multiple sales, numerous unofficial charges, unnecessary bureaucracies, intrusion of unqualified middlemen, and lack of transparency among others. Studies have suggested digitization as a way forward to improve Ghana’s land management system and to address these acquisition challenges. However, none of these studies have specifically provided a clear conceptual digital framework for land acquisition. This article applies an integrative review, mixed with strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis, and deductive lessons from a digital land registry concept to develop a blockchain-based smart land acquisition framework solution in view of Ghana’s land acquisition challenges
Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Felipe Bedoya-Maya
Definition: Traffic congestion is ubiquitous in large cities around the world; where it leads to increased air pollution, vehicle noise, and travel time for private and public transportation. These challenges reduce the well-being of both road users and urban populations.
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