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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2020
Definition: Craving is a multidimensional phenomenon involving an intense urge to consume substances. It is perceived as an individual experience of “wanting” a drug that may result in motivational and drug-seeking behavioral patterns. Alcohol craving has been extensively studied due to its clinical implications in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Craving is considered one of the mechanisms that promote relapse after treatment discharge and even after a prolonged period of abstinence. To better understand the magnitude of the relationship between craving and relapse, it is fundamental to explore factors associated with alcohol craving as it may help in the development of more efficient treatment approaches to prevent relapse in AUD patients.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Young Sup Woo
Definition: Close connections between depression and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been suggested by many epidemiological and experimental studies. Disturbances in insulin sensitivity due to the disruption of various molecular pathways cause insulin resistance, which underpins many metabolic disorders, including diabetes, as well as depression. Several anti-hyperglycemic agents have demonstrated antidepressant properties in clinical trials, probably due to their action on brain targets based on the shared pathophysiology of depression and T2DM.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2020
Submitted by: chaiyavat chaiyasut
Definition: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the impairment of the cognitive function of a child. Studies suggested that the intestinal microbiota has a critical role in the function and regulation of the central nervous system, neuroimmune system, and neuroendocrine system. Any adverse changes in the gut-brain axis may cause serious diseases. Food preferences and dietary patterns are considered as key influencing factors of ASD development. Several recent reviews narrated the importance of dietary composition on controlling or reducing the ASD symptoms. It has been known that consumption of probiotics confers several health benefits by positive amendment of gut microbiota. Influence of probiotic intervention in children with ASD have also been reported and it has been considered as an alternative and complementary therapeutic supplement for ASD. The present manuscript discussed the role of microbiota in the development of ASD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Riccardo Dalle Grave
Definition: Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy, also known as CBT-E, is a “transdiagnostic” psychological treatment for all forms of eating disorder including anorexia nervosa,bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and other similar states. CBT-E is the only treatment recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for all the forms of eating disorders both for adults and adolescents
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Chan Li
Definition: Depression is a mood disorder that causes a loss of interest and constant sadness. Central nervous system (CNS)-targeted medications alone are insufficient for the treatment of depression. Multidrug and multitarget Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) has great potential to assist in the development of novel medications for the systematic and effective pharmacotherapy of depression.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Dietmar Spengler
Definition: Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding 8 (CHD8) is a high confidence risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the genetic cause of a distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome with the core symptoms of autism, macrocephaly, and facial dysmorphism. The role of CHD8 is well-characterized at the structural, biochemical, and transcriptional level. By contrast, much less is understood regarding how mutations in CHD8 underpin altered brain function and mental disease. Studies on various model organisms have been proven critical to tackle this challenge.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Anca Lucia Pop
Definition: Clozapine (CLZ) use is precarious due to its neurological, cardiovascular, and hematological side effects; however, it is the gold standard in therapy-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) in adults and is underused. Objective: to examine the most recent CLZ data on (a) side effects concerning (b) recent pharmacological mechanisms, (c) therapy benefits, and (d) the particularities of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data sources: a search was performed in two databases (PubMed andWeb of Science) using the specific keywords “clozapine” and “schizophrenia”, “side effects”, “agranulocytosis”, “TRS”, or “bipolar affective disorder (BAF)” for the last ten years. Study eligibility criteria: clinical trials on adults with acute symptoms of schizophrenia or related disorders. Results: We selected 37 studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and clinical case series (CCS), centered on six main topics in the search area: (a) CLZ in schizophrenia, (b) CLZ in bipolar disorder, (c) side effects during the clozapine therapy, (d) CLZ in pregnancy, (e) CLZ in early-onset schizophrenia, and (f) CLZ therapy and COVID-19 infection. Limitations: we considered RCTs and CCS from two databases, limited to the search topics. Conclusions and implications of key findings: (a) clozapine doses should be personalized for each patient based on pharmacogenetics testing when available; the genetic vulnerability postulates predictors of adverse reactions’ severity; patients with a lower genetic risk could have less frequent hematological monitoring; (b) a CLZ-associated risk of pulmonary embolism imposes prophylactic measures for venous thromboembolism; (c) convulsive episodes are not an indication for stopping treatment; the plasma concentration of clozapine is a better side effect predictor then the dosage; (d) COVID-19 infection may enhance clozapine toxicity, generating an increased risk of pneumonia. Therapy must be continued with the proper monitoring of the white blood count, and the clozapine dose decreased by half until three days after the fever breaks; psychiatrists and healthcare providers must act together.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Elena Navarro
Definition: With older adults, cognitive intervention programs are most often used for preventing or reversing a decline in cognitive functions. Under the heading of cognitive intervention, a multitude of diverse programs are found. In order to classify this field, we will distinguish between: (1) cognitive training programs (programs that train basic cognitive strategies), (2) cognitive rehabilitation (mono or multidimensional programs on specific skills like memory, attention, arithmetic, etc.), and (3) cognitive stimulation (continuous practice programs or use of external resources).
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Syune Hakobyan
Definition: Concurrent disorder refers to a diverse set of combinations of substance use disorders and mental disorders simultaneously in need of treatment. Concurrent disorders are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and more complex to manage, practicing the best recommendations can support better outcomes. The purpose of this work is to systematically assess the quality of the current concurrent disorders’ clinical recommendation management guidelines. Literature searches were performed by two independent authors in electronic databases, web, and gray literature. The inclusion criteria were English language clinical management guidelines for adult concurrent disorders between 2000 and 2020. The initial search resulted in 8841 hits. A total of 24 guidelines were identified and assessed with the standardized guidelines assessment tool: AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation). Most guidelines had acceptable standards, however, only the NICE guidelines had all detailed information on all AGREE II Domains. Guidelines generally supported combinations of treatments for individual disorders with a very small evidence base for concurrent disorders, and they provided little recommendation for further structuring of the field, such as level of complexity or staging, or evaluating dierent models of treatment integration.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Paula Di Nota
Definition: Public safety personnel (PSP) and frontline healthcare professionals (FHP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs), and report increased rates of post-traumatic stress injuries (PTSIs). Despite widespread implementation and repeated calls for research, effectiveness evidence for organizational post-exposure PTSI mitigation services remains lacking.
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