Sort:
Show:
Page Size:
Topic review
Updated time: 12 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Stylianos Tomaras
Definition: Adult-onset Still’s disease (AoSD) is a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease characterized by arthritis, spiking fever, skin rash and elevated ferritin levels.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Peter Taylor
Definition: Comorbidities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are often associated with poor health outcomes and increased mortality. Treatment decisions should consider these comorbidities due to known or suspected associations with certain drug classes. In clinical practice, it is critical to balance potential treatment benefit against the possible risks for comorbidities as well as the articular manifestations of RA. This entry summarises the current literature relating to prevalence and risk factors for the important comorbidities of cardiovascular disease, infections, lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancers in patients with RA. The impact on patient outcomes and the interplay between these comorbidities and the therapeutic options currently available, including tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and newer biological therapies, are also explored. As newer RA therapies are developed, and patients gain wider and earlier access to advanced therapies, in part due to the emergence of biosimilars, it is important to consider the prevention or treatment of comorbidities as part of the overall management of RA.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 11 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Anna Jopowicz
Definition: Copper, manganese, and iron are vital elements required for the appropriate development and the general preservation of good health. Additionally, these essential metals play key roles in ensuring proper brain development and function.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 09 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Xin Zhang
Definition: Along with cytokines, extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by immune cells in the joint contribute to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. By high-resolution flow cytometry, we characterized 18 surface markers and 4 proinflammatory cytokines carried by EVs of various sizes in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) from individuals with knee OA, with a primary focus on immune cells that play a major role in OA pathogenesis.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Maria felice Brizzi
Definition: Autoimmune diseases are rare conditions with high mortality and morbidity, particularly when the kidney is involved. Extracellular vesicles (EV) act as regulators of the inter-cellular signals and modulate the immune system. This review focus on the potential contribute of EV on the pathophysiology of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), Thrombotic Microangiopathy, and ANCA-vasculitis. Of interest, EV were recognized as novel biomarkers of disease activity in APS and ANCA-vasculitis. EV are also involved in the pathogenesis of SLE, and particularly in the renal injury associated with the lupus nephritis. This implies that to explore EV for disease biomarker discovery and to investigate their potential as therapeutic targets in autoimmune diseases should be the future challenge.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 07 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Christoph Biehl
Definition: In rheumatoid arthritis, the joints of the lower extremities are almost always affected. This is most conspicuous in the knee joint. In rheumatics, inflammatory osteoarthritis manifests itself comparably earlier than in patients with osteoarthritis. The focus of attention was primarily on the synovia with its destruction process and secondary changes. Now, driven by experimental research, dendritic cells and fibroblasts and molecular features are moving into the clinician’s field of vision. Even in joints that appear to be in remission with no swelling or pain, the activity of these cells leads to changes in the capsule-ligaments. The complex deformities and instabilities caused by this, in conjunction with atrophy of the inter-articular musculature, have an impact on the activities of daily life (ADL). If these biomechanical aspects of the knee joint are not taken into account early on in therapy, the frequency of primary and secondary surgical treatment increases. The timely recognition of biomechanical pathologies and consistent treatment can contribute to improving the patient situation in addition to adequate medication therapy.
Unfold
Topic review
Updated time: 13 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Concepción Marañón
Definition: The kidney is one of the main organs affected by the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus nephritis (LN) concerns 30–60% of adult SLE patients and it is significantly associated with an increase in the morbidity and mortality. The definitive diagnosis of LN can only be achieved by histological analysis of renal biopsies, but the invasiveness of this technique is an obstacle for early diagnosis of renal involvement and a proper follow-up of LN patients under treatment. The use of urine for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for renal disease in SLE patients is an attractive alternative to repeated renal biopsies, as several studies have described surrogate urinary cells or analytes reflecting the inflammatory state of the kidney, and/or the severity of the disease.
Unfold