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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Franziska Hornung
Definition: The alterations of adipocyte-derived signal mediators strongly influence the regulation of inflammation, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Lisa F.P. Ng
Definition: Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne pathogens distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate areas causing a wide range of symptoms ranging from inflammatory arthritis-like manifestations to the induction of encephalitis in humans. Historically, large outbreaks in susceptible populations have been recorded followed by the development of protective long-lasting antibody responses suggesting a potential advantageous role for a vaccine.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Cátia Teixeira
Definition: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are small cationic and amphipathic molecules that play a vital role in the host immune system by acting as a first barrier against invading pathogens. The broad spectrum of properties that peptides possess make them one of the best possible alternatives for a new “post-antibiotic” era.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 May 2021
Submitted by: Soraya Smaili
Definition: The family of coronaviruses (CoVs) uses the autophagy machinery of host cells to promote their growth and replication. Pharmacological or pharmacogenomics tools might be used to modulate autofaphy, and these processes stand out potential targets to combat COVID-19.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Manuel Varela
Definition: Bacterial pathogens as causative agents of infection constitute an alarming concern in the public health sector. In particular, bacteria with resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents can confound chemotherapeutic efficacy towards infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant bacteria harbor various molecular and cellular mechanisms for antimicrobial resistance. These antimicrobial resistance mechanisms include active antimicrobial efflux, reduced drug entry into cells of pathogens, enzymatic metabolism of antimicrobial agents to inactive products, biofilm formation, altered drug targets, and protection of antimicrobial targets. These microbial systems represent suitable focuses for investigation to establish the means for their circumvention and to reestablish therapeutic effectiveness.
Entry Collection : Biopharmaceuticals
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 May 2021
Submitted by: Jorge David
Definition: Betulinic acid (BA, 3β-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid present predominantly in Betula ssp. (Betulaceae) and is also widely spread in many species belonging to different plant families. BA presents a wide spectrum of remarkable pharmacological properties, such as cytotoxic, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities, including antiprotozoal effects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Helena Felgueiras
Definition: Skin infections are amongst the most common infectious diseases, ranked as the fourth leading cause of human illnesses. Both bacteria and viruses are responsible for many serious, difficult to treat skin conditions. Fungi are also highly prevalent in skin diseases. Skin infections present considerable threats to a person’s health, psychological wellbeing, capacity to operate, and social involvement.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Sveva Di Franco
Definition: Blood Stream Infections (BSIs) are defined by positive blood culture or cultures (with an isolate of the same species grown in at least one blood culture bottle) in a patient with systemic signs of infection (i.e., a patient who has evidence of one or more of the symptoms or signs, which are fever (body temperature > 38 °C), hypothermia (body temperature < 36 °C), chills, hypotension, oliguria, or high lactate levels).
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Cecilia Righi
Definition: Border disease virus (BDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Interspecies transmission of BDV between sheep, cattle, and pigs occurs regularly, sometimes making diagnosis a challenge.
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Linchuan Yang
Definition: According to the socioecological framework, SARS-CoV-2 infection risk is affected by multilevel factors, such as individual (e.g., sex, age, and attitudes), behavioural (e.g., mobility and social interaction), social environment (e.g., family and friends), built environment, natural environment (air pollution, humid, and temperature), community (e.g., norms of wearing masks), and public policy (e.g., social distancing measures) factors. These multilevel factors may interact with each other and make the impact of the built environment on infection risk more complex. Therefore, it is necessary to control such covariates or to investigate the interactions between the built environment and the social environment in future studies.
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