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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Lisa Adams
Definition: This entry outlines recent preclinical and clinical advances in molecular imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with a focus on molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, developments in pharmacologic treatment of AAA targeting the ECM are reviewed and results from animal studies are contrasted with clinical trials. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often fatal disease without non-invasive pharmacologic treatment options. The ECM, with collagen type I and elastin as major components, is the key structural component of the aortic wall and is recognized as a target tissue for both initiation and the progression of AAA. Molecular imaging allows in vivo measurement and characterization of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level and sets forth to visualize molecular abnormalities at an early stage of disease, facilitating novel diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. By providing surrogate criteria for the in vivo evaluation of the effects of pharmacological therapies, molecular imaging techniques targeting the ECM may facilitate the development of pharmacological drugs. In addition, molecular targets can also be used within theranostic approaches that have the potential for timely diagnosis and simultaneous medical therapy. Recent successes in preclinical studies suggest future opportunities for clinical translation. However, further clinical studies are needed to validate the most promising molecular targets for human application.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Noemí García-Romero
Definition: Liquid biopsies are considered a good alternative and complementary tool for cancer management. The study of specific biomarkers by high throughput techniques could guide clinicians in the monitoring of disease evolution during the administration of targeted therapies. Although ddPCR has demonstrated its high sensitivity and specificity rates for detecting rare actionable mutations, further studies are required to implement it in all clinical laboratories for precision medicine.
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Videos
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Topic review
Updated time: 21 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Horacio Osorio
Definition: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent evidence supports that inflammation plays a key role in triggering and maintaining pulmonary vascular remodeling. Recent studies have shown that garlic extract has protective effects in PAH, but the precise role of allicin, a compound derived from garlic, is unknown. Thus, we used allicin to evaluate its effects on inflammation and fibrosis in PAH.
Topic review
Updated time: 27 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Amélie Marsot
Definition: Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics used as treatment for Gram-negative infections in patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs). Life-threatening infections, often caused by Gram-negative bacteria [1,2], may lead to pathophysiological conditions, such as sepsis, influencing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of many drugs including antibiotics [3]. Antibiotic dosing regimens have been developed with the help of population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling and simulation [11]. Multiple studies have established PopPK models to characterize PK parameters and to gain a better understanding of the variability of aminoglycoside clinical response based on ICU patients’ characteristics. These studies have used nonlinear mixed effects modeling to target and quantify the contribution of specific demographic and pathophysiological characteristics that may influence the aminoglycoside PK profile.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Weikuan Gu
Definition: PD-1 is an important factor in the normal immune response to prevent autoimmunity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Berardino Vaira
Definition: H. pylori is a “fastidious” microorganism; culture methods are time-consuming and technically challenging. The advent of molecular biology techniques has enabled the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the observed phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in H. pylori.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Sadegh Rajabi
Definition: Apoptosis is a multistep process that involves two major pathways to trigger a cascade of events leading to the fragmentation of chromatin, nuclear membrane, andcellshrinkage. However, when this physiological process tended to be dysregulated, many pathological transformations happen to develop cancer.
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Biography
Updated time: 11 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Agnieszka Najda
Abstract: Adductomics is a transformative biomedical research tool that uses an "omic" approach to characterize and quantify exogenous and endogenous reactive compounds to which an individual is exposed; the use of compound-specific adduct biomarkers. Exposure to chemicals is generally driven by a variety of factors such as environment, genetics and lifestyle, which are characterized by a high level of interpersonal variability and contain a life element that makes it unique to each individual.
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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Simina Crisan
Definition: Despite constant progress in understanding its pathology and associated therapeutic actions by targeting lifestyle changes and novel drug treatment strategies, arterial hypertension currently represents one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Europe, with severe potential complications. Significant distinct individual variations of responses to antihypertensive therapy suggest that genetic analysis may provide new important data regarding an accurate definition of prognosis and, most significantly, an adequate choice of treatment, therefore preventing potential complications. Data regarding the multifactorial genetic inheritance of essential arterial hypertension have long been considered; however, given the current rise of genetics and genomics, DNA sequencing could represent a step toward specific genetic variation-based therapy in hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure, despite standard antihypertensive treatment.
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