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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Camille Jacques
Definition: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are two cytokines involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammation state characterizing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant advances in the treatment of this pathology have been made over the past ten years, partially through the development of anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies. However, major side effects still persist and new alternative therapies should be considered.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Lin Ang
Definition: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, which is linked to joint degeneration, loss of cartilage, and alterations of the subchondral bone, and mainly affects the hands, knees, and hips. OA is a highly predominant health condition, which has affected over 260 million people worldwide, and it is becoming even more common due to the combined effects of aging and obesity. OA is even more problematic as it is associated with pain, disability, and personal and economic burden. This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure as a treatment method for osteoarthritis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Margherita Sisto
Definition: For decades, metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) has been the goal of wide investigation. Since its discovery as the tumour necrosis factor-α convertase, it has been studied as the main drug target, especially in the context of inflammatory conditions and tumour. In fact, evidence is mounting to support a key role of ADAM17 in the induction of the proliferation, migration and progression of tumour cells and the trigger of the pro-fibrotic process during chronic inflammatory conditions; this occurs, probably, through the activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is a central morphologic conversion that occurs in adults during wound healing, tumour progression and organ fibrosis. EMT is characterised by the disassembly of cell–cell contacts, remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and separation of cells, and generates fibroblast-like cells that express mesenchymal markers and have migratory properties. This transition is characterised by loss of epithelial proteins such as E-cadherin and the acquisition of new mesenchymal markers, including vimentin and a-smooth muscle actin.
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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ugo Testa
Definition: The development of molecular studies to define the somatic genetic alterations has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a highly heterogenous disease that includes many molecular subtypes; each subtype is heterogeneous both for the presence of variable co-mutations and complex combinations of clones and subclones, changing during disease evolution and in response to treatment. The treatment of AML is changing from standardized schemes of induction and consolidation chemotherapy to tailored approaches according to molecular and genetic profiles and to targeted therapy. Several molecularly targeted therapies have been approved for the treatment of some AML patients, including mutation-specific targeted drugs such as FLT3, IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitors, mutation-independent targeted drugs such as the Bcl2 inhibitor venetoclax, the hedgehog inhibitor glasdegib and the CD33-targeted drug gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the feasibility of a personalized medicine approach for the treatment of AML patients, where the therapy decisions are guided by the results of genomic studies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Natalia Shnayder
Definition: Regular physical activity in cyclic sports can influence the so-called “angiogenic switch”, which is considered as an imbalance between proangiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. Disruption of the synthesis of angiogenic molecules can be caused by local changes in tissues under the influence of excessive physical exertion and its consequences, such as chronic oxidative stress and associated hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, sports injuries, etc.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Nicolae Ghinea
Definition: Anti-angiogenics currently used in cancer therapy target angiogenesis by two major mechanisms: (i) neutralizing angiogenic factors or their receptors by using macromolecule anti-angiogenic drugs (e.g., therapeutic antibodies), and (ii) blocking intracellularly the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases with small molecule (Mr< 1 kDa) inhibitors. Anti-angiogenics halt the growth and spread of cancer, and significantly prolong the disease-free survival of the patients. However, resistance to treatment, insufficient efficacy, and toxicity limit the success of this antivascular therapy. Published evidence suggests that four albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) (gp18, gp30, gp60/albondin, and secreted protein acidic and cysteine-rich (SPARC)) could be responsible for the accumulation of small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) in normal organs and tissues and therefore responsible for the side effects and toxicity associated with this type of cancer therapy.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Zubair Akhtar
Definition: The general population has been excessively using antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the use of antibiotics for any reported illnesses in the preceding four weeks and knowledge of antibiotics among the general population in the community were assessed for possible interventions. A mobile phone survey among a general population across eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh was conducted during January–March 2021.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Videos
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Lily Guo
Entry Collection : MedlinePlus
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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Nicolas De Prost
Definition: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are rare life-threatening bacterial infections characterized by an extensive necrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissues. Initial urgent management of NSTIs relies on broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, rapid surgical debridement of all infected tissues and, when present, treatment of associated organ failures in the intensive care unit.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Tariq Khan
Definition: The rising burden of cancer worldwide calls for an alternative treatment solution. Herbal medicine provides a very feasible alternative to western medicine against cancer. This entry reviews the selected plant species with active phytochemicals, the animal models used for these studies, and their regulatory aspects. This study is based on a meticulous literature review conducted through the search of relevant keywords in databases, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Twenty plants were selected based on defined selection criteria for their potent anticancer compounds. The detailed analysis of the research studies revealed that plants play an indispensable role in fighting different cancers such as breast, stomach, oral, colon, lung, hepatic, cervical, and blood cancer cell lines. The in vitro studies showed cancer cell inhibition through DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-inducing enzymes by the secondary metabolites in the plant extracts. Studies that reported in vivo activities of these plants showed remarkable results in the inhibition of cancer in animal models.
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