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Topic review
Updated time: 07 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ugo Testa
Definition: The development of molecular studies to define the somatic genetic alterations has revolutionized the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is a highly heterogenous disease that includes many molecular subtypes; each subtype is heterogeneous both for the presence of variable co-mutations and complex combinations of clones and subclones, changing during disease evolution and in response to treatment. The treatment of AML is changing from standardized schemes of induction and consolidation chemotherapy to tailored approaches according to molecular and genetic profiles and to targeted therapy. Several molecularly targeted therapies have been approved for the treatment of some AML patients, including mutation-specific targeted drugs such as FLT3, IDH1 and IDH2 inhibitors, mutation-independent targeted drugs such as the Bcl2 inhibitor venetoclax, the hedgehog inhibitor glasdegib and the CD33-targeted drug gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Furthermore, recent studies have shown the feasibility of a personalized medicine approach for the treatment of AML patients, where the therapy decisions are guided by the results of genomic studies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Nicolae Ghinea
Definition: Anti-angiogenics currently used in cancer therapy target angiogenesis by two major mechanisms: (i) neutralizing angiogenic factors or their receptors by using macromolecule anti-angiogenic drugs (e.g., therapeutic antibodies), and (ii) blocking intracellularly the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases with small molecule (Mr< 1 kDa) inhibitors. Anti-angiogenics halt the growth and spread of cancer, and significantly prolong the disease-free survival of the patients. However, resistance to treatment, insufficient efficacy, and toxicity limit the success of this antivascular therapy. Published evidence suggests that four albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) (gp18, gp30, gp60/albondin, and secreted protein acidic and cysteine-rich (SPARC)) could be responsible for the accumulation of small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) in normal organs and tissues and therefore responsible for the side effects and toxicity associated with this type of cancer therapy.
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Videos
Updated time: 08 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Lily Guo
Entry Collection : MedlinePlus
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Ditte Smed Kornum
Definition: The autonomic nervous system delicately regulates the function of several target organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, nerve lesions or other nerve pathologies may cause autonomic dysfunction (AD). Some of the most common causes of AD are diabetes mellitus and α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. Widespread dysmotility throughout the gastrointestinal tract is a common finding in AD, but no commercially available method exists for direct verification of enteric dysfunction. Thus, assessing segmental enteric physiological function is recommended to aid diagnostics and guide treatment.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Lin Ang
Definition: Behcet’s disease (BD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder characterized by a range of manifestations, such as recurrent oral ulcers, genital ulcers, arthritis, vasculitis, and skin lesions. The age of onset of BD is usually 30–40 years.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Letizia Fracchia
Definition: Biosurfactants (BSs) are emerging surface-active molecules with high potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. BSs are extremely attractive due to their significant antimicrobial (against bacteria, fungi and viruses), antiadhesive and biofilm disruptive properties. Their use, either on their own or in combination with other antimicrobial or chemotherapeutic drugs, might pave the way for a future strategy of prevention and counteraction of microbial infections, biofilm formation and proliferation. In addition, BSs have recently attracted the attention of the scientific community as a new potential generation of pharmaceutics to be included in anticancer, immunomodulatory, wound healing, cosmetic and drug delivery agents.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Benoit Gauthier
Definition: The high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), together with the fact that current treatments are only palliative and do not avoid major secondary complications, reveals the need for novel approaches to treat the cause of this disease. Efforts are currently underway to identify therapeutic targets implicated in either the regeneration or re-differentiation of a functional pancreatic islet β-cell mass to restore insulin levels and normoglycemia. However, T2DM is not only caused by failures in β-cells but also by dysfunctions in the central nervous system (CNS), especially in the hypothalamus and brainstem.
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Videos
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Lily Guo
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Brandon Lucke-Wold
Definition: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease exhibiting a distinct pattern of neuropathological changes associated with repetitive head trauma leading to increased risk of long-term memory and cognition issues.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Kristen Mc Sweeney
Definition: Administration of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin leads to acute kidney injury (AKI). Cisplatin-induced AKI (CIAKI) has a complex pathophysiological map, which has been linked to cellular uptake and efflux, apoptosis, vascular injury, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. Despite research efforts, pharmaceutical interventions, and clinical trials spanning over several decades, a consistent and stable pharmacological treatment option to reduce AKI in patients receiving cisplatin remains unavailable. This has been predominately linked to the incomplete understanding of CIAKI pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms involved.
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