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Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Abstract: Transdiagnostic causal variables have been identified that have allowed understanding the origin and maintenance of psychopathologies in parsimonious explanatory models of antisocial disorders. However, it is necessary to systematize the information published in the last decade. The main findings indicated that at a structural level there is a general psychopathological factor (psychopathy or externalizing), non-emotional callousness and impulsivity from behavioral inhibition and activation systems, and negative affect traits as base structures. In the emotional level, the study found a risk component from emotional dysregulation and experiential avoidance. In the cognitive level, a key role of anger-rumination and violent ideation as explanatory variables of antisocial disorders. We concluded that the interaction of these identified variables makes it possible to generate an evidence-based transdiagnostic model.
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: Research on burnout has traditionally focused on job demands, with less attention paid to protective factors. From the emerging and innovative area of psychology of sustainability and sustainable development, the relationship that job demands (workload), and personal resources (psychological capital) have with burnout was analyzed. Results show that (1) psychological capital and workload are related to burnout, and (2) personal accomplishment is more a personal resource than burnout dimension. The results confirm the role of psychological capital as a protective factor for burnout.
Updated time: 10 Nov 2020
Abstract: Professor of Organizational Psychology & Health, University of Manchester.
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Abstract: Personalized cognitive-behavioural therapy for obesity (CBT-OB) CBT-OB is an innovative treatment designed to help patients maintain long-term weight loss by addressing some limitations of traditional behavioural treatment of obesity (BT-OB), namely the poor personalization of the intervention and the prevalent focus on helping the patients to reach behavioural change (i.e., eating and exercise habits) rather than a cognitive change oriented to long-term weight control. As such, CBT-OB includes the main procedures of traditional BT-OB, but includes new strategies and procedures, introduced according to the individual patient’s needs, to address specific cognitive processes that previous research has found be associated with treatment discontinuation, weight loss and weight maintenance. Moreover, it can be delivered in a stepped-care approach, including three levels of care (i.e., outpatient, day-hospital, and residential) to treat patients with severe and disabling obesity.
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: Lack of travel demand measures to curb private vehicles in the city, leading to the problem of traffic congestion in the emerging megacities. Analysis of the problem of traffic congestion to commuter travel mode preferences in the city opens up the door for theoretical exploration of the process of traffic congestion. The study reports the analysis of the framed field experiment to investigate the behavioural responses of commuters. By involving 204 commuters, the research is aimed to investigate the behavioural response of commuters if demand-based non-technical measures are implemented as treatments in the experiment. The two central questions related to this objective are: how do commuter travel mode preferences contribute to urban traffic congestion? And, how can this be empirically analysed in terms of the effect of demand-based non-technical measures?
Updated time: 16 Dec 2020
Definition: The Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) is innovative as most behavioral theories only model single activity. The CCAM, however, models different single activities—such as physical activity and nutrition —and how they change as a result of one another. Such lifestyle activities are assumed to be formed by higher-level goals, which can drive activity volitionally or unconsciously, and are rather unspecific. They become specific because of activities that are subjectively seen as leading to this goal. Each activity must be intended, pursued, and controlled. Specific resources ensure that individuals have the chance to translate their intentions into activity and that they resist distractors. Compensation and transfer (also called carry-over) operate between the different activities. If people devote all of their energy to one domain and believe that no resources remain for the other activity, compensation can help to attain goals. It is also possible that an individual successfully performs one activity, and existing or developing resources may be transferred to another activity.
Updated time: 10 Dec 2020
Definition: Public safety personnel (PSP) and frontline healthcare professionals (FHP) are frequently exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs), and report increased rates of post-traumatic stress injuries (PTSIs). Despite widespread implementation and repeated calls for research, effectiveness evidence for organizational post-exposure PTSI mitigation services remains lacking.
Updated time: 06 Feb 2021
Definition: Death anxiety is an unavoidable common phenomenon in our lives across cultures and religions. It is multidimensional and explained by different theoretical frameworks. Death anxiety can have negative impacts on wellbeing. Death is an inevitable experience that generates a reduced sense of safety and stronger fear (Alkozei et al. 2019).
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Definition: Essential oils (EOs) are extracted from plants and contain active components with therapeutic effects.
Updated time: 15 Aug 2021
Definition: In future urban traffic, it is more likely that automated vehicles (AVs) will operate not in separated traffic spaces but in so-called mixed traffic environments where different types of traffic participants interact. Therefore, AVs must be able to communicate with other traffic participants, e.g., pedestrians as vulnerable road users (VRUs), to solve ambiguous traffic situations. Taking current traffic communication patterns into account, a combination of implicit communication via the driving behavior (e.g., deceleration, position in lane) and explicit communication via an external Human–Machine Interface (eHMI) seems to be a promising approach. The eHMI consists of an external interface connected to the vehicle, which can transmit explicit signals enabling interaction between AVs and other TPs.