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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: STAVROS PONIS
Definition: Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing has emerged as a disruptive and powerful tool for industrial systems in the Industry 4.0 era by helping businesses flourish in the contemporary dynamic competitive landscape. However, their achievements and development highly rely on “take-make-waste” linear business models, which come, all too often, to the detriment of the environment. Hence, a shift to Circular Economy (CE) practices promoting the acceleration of the transition to resource-efficient systems and the minimization of environmental degradation is now more imperative than ever.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jul 2021
Submitted by: SIVABALAN KANIAPAN
Definition: The importance of energy demands that have increased exponentially over the past century has led to the sourcing of other ideal power solutions as the potential replacement alternative to the conventional fossil fuel. However, the utilisation of fossil fuel has created severe environmental issues. The identification of other renewable sources is beneficial to replace the energy utilisation globally. Biomass is a highly favourable sustainable alternative to renewable resources that can produce cleaner, cheaper, and readily available energy sources in the future. The palm oil industry is essentially ideal for the availability of abundant biomass resources, where the multifaceted residues are vital for energy production through the conversion of biomass waste into value-added products simultaneously. This article discusses the utilisation of palm oil and its residues in the energy and transportation sector. Assessment and evaluation on the feasibility of palm oil and its residues were made on the current valorisation methods such as thermochemical and biochemical techniques. Their potential as transportation fuels were concurrently reviewed. This is followed by a discussion on future challenges of palm oil industries that will take place globally, including the prospects from government and non-government organisations for the development of palm oil as a sustainable alternative replacement to fossil fuel. Hence, this review aims to provide further insight into the possibilities of palm oil and its residues towards sustainable development with reduced environmental-related issues.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Nov 2021
Definition: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most frequently used drugs for the medical treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder, being a mood stabilizer. It is metabolized in the liver and excreted mainly as hydroxylated and conjugated metabolite and only around 5% as an unchanged drug.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Aug 2021
Definition: The Fenton process is an efficient treatment for removing many organics pollutants in aqueous systems at acidic pH (2.8-3.5). However, the in-situ application of this technology for soil remediation (where pHs around neutrality are required) presents important limitations, such as catalyst (iron) availability and oxidant (H2O2) stability. The addition of chelating agents (CAs) makes iron soluble at circumneutral pH by forming complexes with Fe, and thus, enabling Fenton reactions under these conditions. This strategy, called chelate-modified Fenton process (MF), can be employed to overcome the challenges identified in conventional Fenton.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Marta Maria Rossi
Definition: Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants whose presence in groundwater has persisted for many decades, mainly due to the physical-chemical characteristics of these compounds. In particular, CAHs belong to Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), for which contamination scenarios differ significantly from Light NAPLs scenarios, where the separate phase floats at the top of the water table due to its lower density than water.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Nicholas Miwornunyuie
Definition: CWMFC is a novel technology that has been used for almost a decade for concurrent wastewater treatment and electricity generation in varying scopes of domestic, municipal, and industrial applications since its implementation in 2012. Its advantage of low-cost enhanced wastewater treatment and sustainable bioelectricity generation has gained considerable attention. Nevertheless, the overall efficiency of this novel technology is inclined by several operating factors and configuration strands, such as pH, sewage composition, organic loading, electrode material, filter media, electrogens, hydraulic retention time, and macrophytes. Here, we investigate the effect of the wetland plant component on the overall performance of CWMFCs. The macrophyte’s involvement in the oxygen input, nutrient uptake, and direct degradation of pollutants for the required treatment effect and bioelectricity production are discussed in more detail. The review identifies and compares planted and unplanted CWMFC with their efficiency on COD removal and electricity generation based on previous and recent studies.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Aug 2021
Submitted by: yang wang
Definition: Dam siting is the study of site selection, a branch of decision making, which has the characteristics of multidisciplinary integration, involving decision making, and coordination, geographic information science, computer science, etc. Siting decisions are constantly iterated and updated as the discipline evolves, and the dam siting process will inevitably face more challenges.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Jul 2021
Submitted by: George Mallouppas
Definition: Decarbonization in Shipping Industry might be achieved through alternative fuels (nuclear, hydrogen, ammonia, methanol), renewable energy sources (biofuels, wind, solar), the maturity of technologies (fuel cells, internal combustion engines) as well as technical and operational strategies to reduce fuel consumption for new and existing ships (slow steaming, cleaning and coating, waste heat recovery, hull and propeller design).
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Fernando Beltran
Definition: Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed by the action of oxidant-disinfectant chemicals, mainly chlorine derivatives (chlorine, hypochlorous acid, chloramines, etc.), that react with natural organic matter (NOM), mainly humic substances. DBPs are usually refractory to oxidation, mainly due to the presence of halogen compounds so that advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are a recommended option to deal with their removal.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Dennis Asante-Sackey
Definition: Donnan membrane processes (DMPs) are driven by a potential gradient across an ion exchange membrane and have an advantage over fouling in conventional pressure driven membrane technologies, which are gaining attention. DMP is a removal, recovery and recycling technology that is commonly used for separation, purification and the concentrating of metals in different water and waste streams.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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