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Topic review
Updated time: 06 Apr 2021
Submitted by: SIVABALAN KANIAPAN
Definition: The importance of energy demands that have increased exponentially over the past century has led to the sourcing of other ideal power solutions as the potential replacement alternative to the conventional fossil fuel. However, the utilisation of fossil fuel has created severe environmental issues. The identification of other renewable sources is beneficial to replace the energy utilisation globally. Biomass is a highly favourable sustainable alternative to renewable resources that can produce cleaner, cheaper, and readily available energy sources in the future. The palm oil industry is essentially ideal for the availability of abundant biomass resources, where the multifaceted residues are vital for energy production through the conversion of biomass waste into value-added products simultaneously. This article discusses the utilisation of palm oil and its residues in the energy and transportation sector. Assessment and evaluation on the feasibility of palm oil and its residues were made on the current valorisation methods such as thermochemical and biochemical techniques. Their potential as transportation fuels were concurrently reviewed. This is followed by a discussion on future challenges of palm oil industries that will take place globally, including the prospects from government and non-government organisations for the development of palm oil as a sustainable alternative replacement to fossil fuel. Hence, this review aims to provide further insight into the possibilities of palm oil and its residues towards sustainable development with reduced environmental-related issues.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 May 2021
Submitted by: George Mallouppas
Definition: Decarbonization in Shipping Industry might be achieved through alternative fuels (nuclear, hydrogen, ammonia, methanol), renewable energy sources (biofuels, wind, solar), the maturity of technologies (fuel cells, internal combustion engines) as well as technical and operational strategies to reduce fuel consumption for new and existing ships (slow steaming, cleaning and coating, waste heat recovery, hull and propeller design).
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Topic review
Updated time: 27 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Michael I Ojovan
Definition: Glasses are solid amorphous materials which transform into liquids upon heating through the glass transition.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Wafaa Ali
Definition: Bioretention is considered one of the best management practices (BMPS) for managing stormwater quality and quantity. The bioretention system has proven good performance in removing total suspended solids, oil, and heavy metals. The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of the bioretention system is insufficient, however, due to the complex forms of nitrogen.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Anita Parzentna-Gabor
Definition: Comparing various methods of odor removal, undoubtedly biological methods of pollution degrada-tion have an advantage over others—chemical and physical. This advantage is manifestedmainly in ecological and economic terms. The possibility of using biological methods to remove H2S and NH3, as the most common emitted by the municipal sector companies, was analyzed in terms of their removal efficiency. The method of bio-purification of air in biotrickling filters is more advan-tageous than the others, due to the high effectiveness of VOCs and odors degradation, lack of secondary pollutants, and economic aspects—it is a method competitive to the commonly used air purification method in biofilters.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Jamal Khatib
Definition: Baked clay bricks (Impunyu) is the dominant wall construction material in Rwanda. Clay deposits in the country’s lowlands are utilized for baked clay bricks. Despite the ongoing campaign, the use of wood by some local brick producers is unfriendly to the environment. Recent research has called for alternative methods in order to reduce the cost and impact on the environment. Earlier efforts with compressed earth blocks were saddled with weight and a substantial use of cement for good surface texture and adequate resistance against surface erosion. This research explored the potentials of using an appropriate dose of clay (from Muhanzi), volcanic light aggregate (Amakoro, (from Musanze)), and cement to produce unbaked shelled compressed earth blocks (SCEB). SCEB is a compressed earth block with an outer shell and inner core of different cement content or materials, compressed into a unit block. The result is a masonry unit with a higher surface resistance, durability, and desirable architectural effect produced with a 60% reduction in cement content. A weight reduction of 12% was achieved with an optimum content of 33% of the volcanic lightweight aggregate. A cost reduction of 25% was recorded over conventional compressed earth brick walls and a 54% over sand-cement block walls. Possible future trends were also identified with appreciable prospects in earthen architecture.