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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Definition: We present a review on Additive Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 from business innovation and sustainability perspective.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Sara Ferraris
Definition: Metal Foams (MF) are tridimensional metal matrices which can be defined as mixtures of metal and gas (generally gas volume fraction is higher than 70% and relative density is lower than 0.3). MF can have open or closed cells, which means that porosity can be interconnected or not, respectively. Metal foams are extremely interesting due to their low density, high specific stiffness, and impact energy/vibration absorption ability. The use of metal foams as permanent cores in casting can be an opportunity to improve the properties of cast components and to simplify the technological processes (e.g., no need for core removal/treatment/recycling).
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Julien O. Fadonougbo
Definition: AxBy intermetallics show outstanding performances, notably for stationary hydrogen storage applications. Elemental substitution, whether on the A or B site of these alloys, allows the effective tailoring of key properties such as gravimetric density, equilibrium pressure, hysteresis and cyclic stability for instance.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Definition: Deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) is a type of cryogenic treatment, where a metallic material is subjected to temperatures below -150°C, normally to temperatures of liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). When a material is exposed to DCT as a part of heat treatment, changes in microstructure are induced due to new grain formation, changes in grain size, change in the solubility of atoms, movement of dislocations, alteration of crystal structure, and finally new phase formation. The metallic material's performance and later performance of manufactured components and tools from this specific material are dependent on the selection of proper design, proper material, accuracy with which the tool is made and application of proper heat treatment, including any eventual DCT. Metallic materials are ferrous and non-ferrous metals. In the last years ferrous metals (different grades of steel) and non-ferrous alloys (aluminum, magnesium, titanium, nickel etc.) have been increasingly treated with DCT to alter their properties. DCT treatment has shown to reduce density of defects in crystal structure, increase wear resistance of material, increase hardness, improve toughness, and reduce tensile strength and corrosion resistance. However, some researchers also reported results showing no change in properties (toughness, hardness, corrosion resistance, etc.) or even deterioration when subjected to DCT treatment. This leads to a lack of consistency and reliability of the treatment process, which is needed for successful application in industry. This review provides a synopsis of DCT usage and resulting effects on treated materials used in automotive industry.
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Others
Updated time: 23 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Jiaxu Zhou
Abstract: Over the past decade, there have been an increasing number of articles in the ergonomics literature that have used wearable sensors to capture human motion data for analysis and decision-making. The relationship between the postures and the occupations of adults has been studied for a long time, and in terms of evacuation, researchers have found that adopting different postures significantly affects survival rates, but little is known about children. Moreover, children are more vulnerable than adults during evacuation, as they are physically, mentally, and physiologically underdeveloped. Recently, researchers have become increasingly interested in the motor skills and evacuation behavior of children. However, ergonomic findings on the evacuation behavior of children with a motion capture system remain limited; therefore, an in-depth study concerning the dynamic behavior of children is necessary.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Pao Ter Teo
Definition: EAF slag is a non-metallic by-product that consists mainly of silicates and oxides formed during the process of refining the molten steel. Raw EAF slag often appears as grey or black colored lumps, depending on its ferrous oxide content. This type of slag generally has a rough surface texture, with a surface pore diameter of 0.01–10 μm.
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Topic review Peer-reviewed
Updated time: 25 Feb 2021
Submitted by: Lorenz Lindenthal
Definition: Exsolution catalysts are perovskite oxide-based materials that can exsolve catalytically active dopant elements as nanoparticles covering the surface, while the perovskite backbone can act as a stable support material. Thus, under proper conditions, a highly catalytically active and stable catalyst surface can be achieved. For many catalytic materials, precious metals or non-abundant elements play a key role in high catalytic activity. As these elements are often expensive or their supply is ecologically and ethically problematic, the replacement, or at the least reduction in the necessary amount used, is a common aim of current research. One strategy to do so is utilizing exsolution catalysts, as the active elements can be very selectively exsolved, and hence only very small doping amounts are sufficient for excellent results. This approach enables catalyst design with very high active metal efficiency.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Marc Wilbrink
Definition: In future urban traffic, it is more likely that automated vehicles (AVs) will operate not in separated traffic spaces but in so-called mixed traffic environments where different types of traffic participants interact. Therefore, AVs must be able to communicate with other traffic participants, e.g., pedestrians as vulnerable road users (VRUs), to solve ambiguous traffic situations. Taking current traffic communication patterns into account, a combination of implicit communication via the driving behavior (e.g., deceleration, position in lane) and explicit communication via an external Human–Machine Interface (eHMI) seems to be a promising approach. The eHMI consists of an external interface connected to the vehicle, which can transmit explicit signals enabling interaction between AVs and other TPs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Nicola Morley
Definition: Amorphous alloys for soft magnetic applications are often fabricated by rapid solidification of the melt. They are generally prepared with the nearly 20% addition of metalloids (Si, B, Al, C and P) for Fe-based and Co-based alloys. Si and B are important metalloids for glass formation and the amorphous structure stabilisation. Typical chemical compositions are such that the combined compositions of Fe, Co, Ni elements are 70–85 atomic (at.)% and those of Si and B are 15–30 at.% in total. However, magnetic glassy alloys have a wide variety of compositions. This allows for a large range of soft magnetic properties to be achieved, which depend upon the demands of the application.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Yoko Yamabe-Mitarai
Definition: With the aim to improve the strength of high-temperature shape memory alloys, multi-component alloys, including medium- and high-entropy alloys, have been investigated and proposed as new structural materials. Notably, it was discovered that the martensitic transformation temperature could be controlled through a combination of the constituent elements and alloys with high austenite finish temperatures above 500 °C. The irrecoverable strain decreased in the multi-component alloys compared with the ternary alloys. The repeated thermal cyclic test was effective toward obtaining perfect strain recoveries in multi-component alloys, which could be good candidates for high-temperature shape memory alloys.
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