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Topic review
Updated time: 28 May 2021
Submitted by: Kacper Szymański
Definition: This entry describes the basics of photocatalysis. It also presents properties and applications of C-,N- and S-Doped TiO2 as a photocatalyst.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jul 2021
Submitted by: He Huang
Definition: Cellulose is a macromolecular polysaccharide linked by glucose via a β-1,4-glycosidic bond, is insoluble in water and organic solvents, and forms the plant cell wall together with hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. Cellulases are a group of enzymes that can hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to produce glucose, and the members of this group include exoglucanase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase. The synergistic action of these enzymes can break down cellulose into glucose.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Vincenzo Russo
Definition: The epoxidized group, also known as the oxirane group, can be considered as one of the most crucial rings in chemistry. Due to the high ring strain and the polarization of the C–O bond in this three-membered ring, several reactions can be carried out. One can see such a functional group as a crucial intermediate in fuels, polymers, materials, fine chemistry, etc.
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Topic review
Updated time: 04 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Ali Mirzaei
Definition: H2S gas is a toxic and hazardous byproduct of the oil and gas industries. It paralyzes the olfactory nerves, with concentrations above 100 ppm, resulting in loss of smell; prolonged inhalation may even cause death. One of the most important semiconducting metal oxides for the detection of H2S is CuxO (x = 1, 2), which is converted to CuxS upon exposure to H2S, leading to a remarkable modulation in the resistance and appearance of an electrical sensing signal.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Ilaria Rea
Definition: Porous materials showing some useful transducing features, i.e., any changes in their physical or chemical properties as a consequence of molecular interaction, are very attractive in the realization of sensors and biosensors. Diatom frustules have been gaining support for biosensors since they are made of nanostructured amorphous silica, but do not require any nano-fabrication step; their surface can be easily functionalized and customized for specific application; diatom frustules are photoluminescent, and they can be found in almost every pond of water on the Earth, thus assuring large and low-cost availability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Fernando Beltran
Definition: Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed by the action of oxidant-disinfectant chemicals, mainly chlorine derivatives (chlorine, hypochlorous acid, chloramines, etc.), that react with natural organic matter (NOM), mainly humic substances. DBPs are usually refractory to oxidation, mainly due to the presence of halogen compounds so that advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are a recommended option to deal with their removal.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Dennis Asante-Sackey
Definition: Donnan membrane processes (DMPs) are driven by a potential gradient across an ion exchange membrane and have an advantage over fouling in conventional pressure driven membrane technologies, which are gaining attention. DMP is a removal, recovery and recycling technology that is commonly used for separation, purification and the concentrating of metals in different water and waste streams.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Mohamed Koubaa
Definition: Dyes from Microorganisms means production of pigments using single cell microorganisms. It is gaining traction as a sustainable alternative to conventional synthese.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Marina Ramos
Definition: Emulsion Techniques, for example, microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation, can be used in the formulation of food coatings. A variety of methods have been developed to obtain different emulsions, forming excellent biomaterials to be applied as edible films in combination with biopolymer matrices. The significance and widespread applications of edible films to obtain coatings to protect food are originated from their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and no toxicity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Alessio Alexiadis
Definition: In the fluidized bed system, the performance of the reactor is affected by the hydrodynamic behaviors of the reactor in that fluid dynamics affects both heat and mass transfer.
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