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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Nov 2021
Submitted by: Huicong Jia
Definition: The term “adaptation” is currently used in the climate field. It originated from natural science in the field of population biology and evolutionary ecology. It originally referred to the general characteristics that ensure the survival and reproduction of organic individuals in living environments. The definition of “adaptation” has many attributes, including the two most important points. First is the spatial scale of adaptation, which depends on who is responsible. Second is the nature of adaptive behavior, whether it is spontaneous or conscious or it is planned or prescriptive. The former is usually short-term and tactical adaptation, which is directly related to specific climate change. The latter is more strategic, long-term, and proactive and is usually formulated by government departments and used as part of policy adaptation measures. The adaptation to climate change in the literature is sometimes divergent at the temporal and spatial scales. Short-term adaptation is more of a reaction, and higher-scale adaptation is considered an expected adaptation through policies, projects, and recent plans and actions.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Le Yu
Definition: Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud computing platform that was launched by Google in 2010. Since then, GEE has demonstrated its capacity of preprocessing and mining of geographic big data. GEE enables cloud computation and is an effective tool for carrying out the analysis of global geospatial big data.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 23 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Hara Drinia
Definition: “Geoheritage” is a new term that assumes complete perception of Man for nature and the environment. As stated by McBriar “Geological-geomorphological heritage is the collection of geotopes, deposits, forms, and processes that comprise the geological history of each region, and the concept of preserving geological-geomorphological heritage is a cultural concept”.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Le Yu
Definition: Released in 2005 by Google, Google Earth (GE) has become the most popular and successful virtual globe tool. GE has demonstrated its capacity for 3D global representation and visualization of geospatial data from local to global scales.
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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Chiman Kwan
Definition: The Curiosity rover has landed on Mars since 2012. One of the instruments onboard the rover is a pair of multispectral cameras known as Mastcams, which act as eyes of the rover.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Shifa Mathbout
Definition: To define such drought events and their characteristics, separate analyses based on three drought indices were performed at 12-month timescale: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). A multivariate combined drought index (DXI) was developed by merging the previous three indices for more understanding of droughts’ features at the country and subregional levels. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify five different drought subregions based on DXI-12 values for 312 Mediterranean stations and a new special score was defined to classify the multi-subregional exceptional drought events across the Mediterranean Basin (MED). The results indicated that extensive drought events occurred more frequently since the late 1990s, showing several drought hotspots in the last decades in the southeastern Mediterranean and northwest Africa. In addition, the results showed that the most severe events were more detected when more than single drought index was used.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 May 2021
Submitted by: Robert Liebermann
Definition: Mineral physics is the study of mineralogical problems through the application of condensed matter physics and solid-state chemistry.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Mar 2021
Definition: Wind forecasts are widely spread because of the growth in wind power, but also because there are other applications to consider, such as the long-term scenario forecasts regarding the effects of global warming. Overall, there have been big developments in global circulation models (GCM) that inform future scenarios at the large scale, but wind forecast at a local scale is a problem that has not totally been solved.
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