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Topic review
Updated time: 18 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Francisco A. Macías
Definition: Annona cherimola Mill., or the custard apple, is one of the species belonging to the Annonaceae family, is widely used in traditional medicine, and has been reported to be a valuable source of bioactive compounds.
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Topic review
Updated time: 14 Jul 2021
Definition: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic multifactorial pathology and a current and essential challenge for public health, with a negative impact on the geriatric patient’s quality of life.
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Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: sonia Trombino
Definition: Recently, the intranasal route has emerged as a promising administration site for central nervous system therapeutics since it provides a direct connection to the central nervous system, avoiding the passage through the blood–brain barrier, consequently increasing drug cerebral bioavailability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 May 2021
Submitted by: Irene Bulli
Definition: Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The only pharmacological treatment available to date for cerebral ischemia is tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the search for successful therapeutic strategies still remains a major challenge. The loss of cerebral blood flow leads to reduced oxygen supply and a subsequent switch to the glycolytic pathway, which leads to tissue acidification. Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is the enzyme responsible for converting carbon dioxide into a protons and bicarbonate, thus contributing to pH regulation and metabolism, with many CA isoforms present in the brain. Recently, numerous studies have shed light on several classes of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) as possible new pharmacological agents for the management of brain ischemia.
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Topic review
Updated time: 12 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Nataliya Kildeeva
Definition: For the creation of tissue-engineered structures based on natural biopolymers with the necessary chemical, physical, adhesive, morphological, and regenerative properties, biocompatible materials based on polysaccharides and proteins are used. This entry is devoted to a problem of the technology of polymeric materials for biomedical purposes: the creation of biopolymer tissue engineering matrix and the development of a methodology for studying morphology and functional properties of their surface to establish the prospects for using the material for contact with living objects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Håkon Reikvam
Definition: Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare event in disorders associated with monoclonal gammopathy and is mostly associated with the accumulation of immunoglobulins (Igs) in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Deepak Ipe
Definition: Researchers have developed novel nanocomposites that incorporate additional biomaterials with dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) in order to reduce secondary caries. The aim of this review was to summarize the current literature and assess the synergistic antibacterial and remineralizing effects that may contribute to the prevention of secondary caries. An electronic search was undertaken in MEDLINE using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane databases.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jul 2021
Submitted by: Issei Otsuka
Definition: Recent developments in electrospinning technology have enabled the commercial-scale production of nonwoven fabrics from synthetic and natural polymers. Since the early 2000s, polysaccharides and their derivatives have been recognized as promising raw materials for electrospinning, and their electrospun textiles have attracted increasing attention for their diverse potential applications. In particular, their biomedical applications have been spotlighted thanks to their “green” aspects, e.g., abundance in nature, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. This review focuses on three main research topics in the biomedical applications of electrospun polysaccharidic textiles: (i) delivery of therapeutic molecules, (ii) tissue engineering, and (iii) wound healing, and discusses recent progress and prospects.
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Topic review
Updated time: 24 Aug 2021
Definition: Bast fiber plants require a post-harvest process to yield useable natural cellulosic fibers, denoted as retting or degumming. It encompasses the degradation of the cell wall’s non-cellulosic gummy substances (NCGs), facilitating fibers separations, setting the fiber’s quality, and determining downstream usages. Due to the inconvenience of traditional retting practices, bacterial inoculum and enzyme applications for retting gained attention. Therefore, concurrent changes of agroclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, the conventional water retting confront multiple difficulties, bast industries become vulnerable, and bacterial agents mediated augmented bio-retting processes trying to adapt to sustainability. However, this process’s success demands a delicate balance among substrates and retting-related biotic and abiotic factors. These critical factors were coupled to degrade bast fibers NCGs in bacterial retting while holistically disregarded in basic research. In this study, a set of factors were defined that critically regulates the process and requires to be comprehended to achieve optimum retting without failure.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Takashi Matsuo
Definition: Hoveyda–Grubbs-type complexes, ruthenium catalysts for olefin metathesis, have gained increased interest as a research target in the interdisciplinary research fields of chemistry and biology because of their high functional group selectivity in olefin metathesis reactions and stabilities in aqueous media.
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